, Volume 168, Issue 4, pp 359–376 | Cite as

Transcranial magnetic stimulation: studying motor neurophysiology of psychiatric disorders

  • Fumiko Maeda
  • Alvaro Pascual-LeoneEmail author



Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive tool that directly stimulates cortical neurons by inducing magnetic and secondary electric fields. Traditionally TMS has been used to study the motor neurophysiology of healthy subjects and those with neurological disorders.


Given the known motor dysfunctions in many psychiatric disorders supplemental usage of TMS to study the underlying pathophysiology of certain psychiatric disorders and to assess treatment outcomes is underway. Such studies include examination of motor neuronal membrane, corticospinal and intracortical excitability. Our objective is to overview the past findings.


We review the past literature that used TMS as an assessment tool in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse.


While the findings are still preliminary due to small sample-size, inconsistent patient population (diagnosis, medication), differences in methodology between research groups, studies restricted to the motor region and possible lack of sensitivity and specificity, the studies are yielding interesting results which could potentially lead to trait- and state-markers of psychiatric disorders.


Future studies using TMS alone or in combination with other neuroimaging techniques promise to further expand the application of TMS from studies of motor excitability to higher cognitive functions.


Transcranial magnetic stimulation Psychiatry Trait-marker State-marker Cortical excitability Neurophysiology 



This research was supported in part by grants from the Cellular Science Research Foundation, Yoshida Science Foundation, and the Japan North America Medical Exchange Foundation to F.M., and the National Alliance for Research and Schizophrenia and Depression and the National Institutes of Mental Health (RO1MH57980) to A. P.-L.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., USA
  2. 2.Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave. KS452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
  3. 3.Institute for Bioengineering, Miguel Hernandez University, Alicante, Spain

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