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Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology

, Volume 362, Issue 4–5, pp 364–374 | Cite as

Structure and function of adenosine receptors and their genes

  • Bertil B. Fredholm
  • Giulia Arslan
  • Linda Halldner
  • Björn Kull
  • Gunnar Schulte
  • Wyeth Wasserman
Review Article

Abstract

Four adenosine receptors have been cloned from many mammalian and some non-mammalian species. In each case the translated part of the receptor is encoded by two separate exons. Two separate promoters regulate the A1 receptor expression, and a similar situation may pertain also for the other receptors. The receptors are expressed in a cell and tissue specific manner, even though A1 and A2B receptors are found in many different cell types. Emerging data indicate that the receptor protein is targeted to specific parts of the cell. A1 and A3 receptors activate the Gi family of G proteins, whereas A2A and A2B receptors activate the Gs family. However, other G proteins can also be activated even though the physiological significance of this is unknown. Following the activation of G proteins several cellular effector pathways can be affected. Signaling via adenosine receptors is also known to interact in functionally important ways with signaling initiated via other receptors.

Adenosine receptors Transcriptional regulation G proteins Signal transduction Phosphorylation 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bertil B. Fredholm
    • 1
  • Giulia Arslan
    • 1
  • Linda Halldner
    • 1
  • Björn Kull
    • 1
  • Gunnar Schulte
    • 1
  • Wyeth Wasserman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 StockholmSweden
  2. 2.Center for Genomics Research, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 StockholmSweden

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