Synthesis, characterization, and biocompatibility of lanthanum titanate nanoparticles in albino mice in a sex-specific manner


The aim of this study is to report the synthesis, characterization, and biocompatibility of lanthanum titanate nanoparticles (LT NPs) in albino mice. Microemulsion method was used to generate LT NPs. Seven-week-old albino mice of both sexes orally received 50 mg/ml saline/kg body weight of nanoparticles for 15 days (group 1) and 29 days (group 2). Control groups were maintained in parallel. Selected behavioral (rotarod, light and dark box, open-field and Morris water maze) tests were conducted, blood biochemical analysis was done, and antioxidants were determined in vital organs of all treatments. Male mice treated with LT NPs for 15 days spent significantly more time in light and less time in dark during light dark box test. While they had made significantly more platform entries and platform maximum visits during acquisition phase of Morris water maze test, they remained unaffected in probe trail performance when compared with control. These male mice had significantly reduced white blood cells, lymphocyte, and monocyte count and significantly increased triglyceride levels in serum than the control group. They had higher level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in heart and reduced level of malonaldehyde (MDA) in kidney while 15-day LT NP-treated females had significantly higher level of SOD in liver and kidney. Male mice treated with NPs for 29 days had increased anticlockwise rotations during open field, reduced level of triglycerides in serum, and significantly higher level of SOD in kidney and MDA in lungs. In contrast, female mice treated with NPs for 29 days had higher SOD level in liver, kidney, and heart than their control group. Oral supplementation of LT NPs for variable duration improved the exploratory behavior in male but disturbed blood chemistry and antioxidants from vital organs under both experimental conditions.

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Author information

FI designed and supervised the study; MNA synthesized and characterized the nanomaterial; INA, ML, and SI conducted behavioral studies; GA performed complete blood count; GK and MMA performed the serum tests; and AN, MM, FS, and ZS conducted the antioxidant tests.

Correspondence to Furhan Iqbal.

Ethics declarations

All the animal handling procedures and experimental protocols were approved by the ethical review committee of the Institute of Pure and Applied Biology at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan) (number Biol/Ethics/38-2017).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no competing interests.

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Supplementary Fig. 1.

Comparison of gain in body weight for (A) 15 and (B) 29 days on daily basis between Lanthanum Titanate nanoparticles treated (50mg/ ml of saline/ Kg body weight) and untreated adult albino mice of both sexes. P-value represents the results of two sample t-test. N = 8 for each treatment. Data is expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. (JPG 77 kb).

Supplementary Fig. 2.

Comparison of Rota rod test performance between Lanthanum Titanate nanoparticles treated (50mg/ ml of saline/ Kg body weight) and untreated adult albino mice of both sexes after (A) 15 and (B) 29 days of treatment. P-value represents the results of two sample t-test calculated for this parameter. N = 8 for each treatment. Data is expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. (JPG 89 kb).


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Akram, I.N., Akhtar, S., Khadija, G. et al. Synthesis, characterization, and biocompatibility of lanthanum titanate nanoparticles in albino mice in a sex-specific manner. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol (2020).

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  • Lanthanum titanate
  • Neurological test
  • Complete blood count
  • Serum biochemistry
  • Antioxidant metabolites