Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology

, Volume 379, Issue 4, pp 417–420 | Cite as

Analyzing the validity of GalR1 and GalR2 antibodies using knockout mice

  • Xiaoying Lu
  • Tamas BartfaiEmail author
Short Communication


G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest family of cell surface receptors and are the major drug targets for the treatment of various human diseases. The lack of sensitive and selective antibodies capable of recognizing endogenous GPCRs, however, hampers the progress of research on this class of receptors. GalR1 through GalR3, GPCRs for the neuropeptide galanin, are potential drug targets for seizure, Alzheimer’s disease, depression and anxiety, as well as pain and metabolic syndrome; therefore, determining the cellular and subcellular localization of galanin receptors is of high interest. Several Antibodies raised against galanin receptors are currently available from commercial or academic sources. We have tested several antibodies to GalR1 and GalR2 on tissues from respective knockout mice. Unexpectedly, the immunoreactivity patterns are the same in wild-type and in knockout mice, suggesting that current GalR1 and GalR2 antibodies, under standard immunodetection conditions, might not be suitable for mapping the receptors. These findings argue for taking precaution when using antibodies to galanin receptors.


Galanin Antibody CNS 



We thank Jacinta Lucero (University of California, San Diego) for her help in testing various GalR antibodies. We thank Bruno Conti and Brendon Ross for reading the manuscript and providing helpful comments. The study was supported by MH074055 and MH063080 (T.B).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Harold L. Dorris Neurological Research Institute, Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences DepartmentThe Scripps Research InstituteLa JollaUSA

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