We previously showed that purified 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl (1-MIM) glucosinolate, a secondary plant metabolite in Brassica species, is mutagenic in various in vitro systems and forms DNA and protein adducts in mouse models. In the present study, we administered 1-MIM glucosinolate in a natural matrix to mice, by feeding a diet containing pak choi powder and extract. Groups of animals were killed after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of pak choi diet, directly or, in the case of the 8-day treatment, after 0, 8 and 16 days of recovery with pak choi-free diet. DNA adducts [N2-(1-MIM)-dG, N6-(1-MIM)-dA] in six tissues, as well as protein adducts [τN-(1-MIM)-His] in serum albumin (SA) and hemoglobin (Hb) were determined using UPLC–MS/MS with isotopically labeled internal standards. None of the samples from the 12 control animals under standard diet contained any 1-MIM adducts. All groups receiving pak choi diet showed DNA adducts in all six tissues (exception: lung of mice treated for a single day) as well as SA and Hb adducts. During the feeding period, all adduct levels continuously increased until day 8 (in the jejunum until day 4). During the 14-day recovery period, N2-(1-MIM)-dG in liver, kidney, lung, jejunum, cecum and colon decreased to 52, 41, 59, 11, 7 and 2%, respectively, of the peak level. The time course of N6-(1-MIM)-dA was similar. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that cell turnover is a major mechanism of DNA adduct elimination in the intestine. In the same recovery period, protein adducts decreased more rapidly in SA than in Hb, to 0.7 and 37%, respectively, of the peak level, consistent with the differential turnover of these proteins. In conclusion, the pak choi diet lead to the formation of high levels of adducts in mice. Cell and protein turnover was a major mechanism of adduct elimination, at least in gut and blood.
1-Methoxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate Neoglucobrassicin DNA adducts Blood protein adducts Pak choi
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This study was financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Grant 0315370D).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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