Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 92, Issue 12, pp 3443–3457 | Cite as

Next-generation sequencing approaches for the study of genome and epigenome toxicity induced by sulfur mustard

  • Yunes Panahi
  • Amir Fattahi
  • Fatemeh Zarei
  • Navid Ghasemzadeh
  • Abbas Mohammadpoor
  • Sina Abroon
  • Jafar Nouri Nojadeh
  • Mehran Khojastefard
  • Abolfazl AkbarzadehEmail author
  • Tohid GhasemnejadEmail author
Review Article


Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extensive nucleophilic and alkylating agent that targets different tissues. The genotoxic property of SM is the most threatening effect, because it is associated with detrimental inflammations and susceptibility to several kinds of cancer. Moreover, SM causes a wide variety of adverse effects on DNA which result in accumulation of DNA adducts, multiple mutations, aneuploidies, and epigenetic aberrations in the genome. However, these adverse effects are still not known well, possibly because no valid biomarkers have been developed for detecting them. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has provided opportunities for the characterization of these alterations with a higher level of molecular detail and cost-effectivity. The present review introduces NGS approaches for the detection of SM-induced DNA adducts, mutations, chromosomal structural variation, and epigenetic aberrations, and also comparing and contrasting them with regard to which might be most advantageous.


Sulfur mustard Genotoxicity Epigenome toxicity NGS 



We would like to dedicate this article to the victims of chemical weapon-exposed countries.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Injuries Research Center, System Biology and Poisoning InstituteBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Reproductive Biology, Faculty of Advanced Medical SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology at Cell Science Research CenterRoyan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECRTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  5. 5.Cellular and Molecular Research CenterUrmia University of Medical SciencesUrmiaIran
  6. 6.Stem Cell Research Center (SCRC)Tabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  7. 7.Department of Medical Genetic, Faculty of MedicineTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  8. 8.Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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