Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 91, Issue 11, pp 3469–3475 | Cite as

Obesogenic endocrine disruptors and obesity: myths and truths

  • Giovanna Muscogiuri
  • Luigi Barrea
  • Daniela Laudisio
  • Silvia Savastano
  • Annamaria Colao
Review Article

Abstract

Obesogenic endocrine disruptors, also known as obesogens, are chemicals potentially involved in weight gain by altering lipid homeostasis and promoting adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. They included compounds to which human population is exposed over daily life such as pesticides/herbicides, industrial and household products, plastics, detergents and personal care products. The window of life during which the exposure happens could lead to different effects. A critical window is during utero and/or neonatal period in which the obesogens could cause subtle changes in gene expression and tissue organization or blunt other levels of biological organization leading to increased susceptibility to diseases in the adulthood. Some of the reasons for this increased sensitivity include the lack of the protective mechanisms that are available in adult such as DNA repair mechanisms, a competent immune system, detoxifying enzymes, liver metabolism and the blood/brain barrier still not fully functional in the fetus or newborn. The mechanisms of action of obesogens lay on their ability to increase the number and/or the size of the adipocytes and to alter appetite, satiety and food preferences. The ability of obesogens to increase fat deposition results in an increased capacity for their own retention due to their lipophilic properties; thus prolonging the exposure and increasing the detrimental metabolic consequences.

Keywords

Obesity Phthalates Bisphenol A Diethylstilbestrol Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Organic pollutants Environment Tributyltin 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest, neither any grants nor other financial supports regarding the publication of this article.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanna Muscogiuri
    • 1
  • Luigi Barrea
    • 1
  • Daniela Laudisio
    • 1
  • Silvia Savastano
    • 2
  • Annamaria Colao
    • 2
  1. 1.Ios and Coleman Medicina Futura Medical CenterAcerraItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Medicine and SurgeryUniversity “Federico II” - NaplesNaplesItaly

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