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Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 91, Issue 11, pp 3647–3662 | Cite as

Mechanisms of hepatotoxicity associated with the monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic BAL30072

  • Franziska Paech
  • Simon Messner
  • Jochen Spickermann
  • Mathias Wind
  • Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann
  • Anne Therese Witschi
  • Brett A. Howell
  • Rachel J. Church
  • Jeff Woodhead
  • Marc Engelhardt
  • Stephan KrähenbühlEmail author
  • Martina Maurer
Organ Toxicity and Mechanisms

Abstract

BAL30072 is a new monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic under development which provides a therapeutic option for the treatment of severe infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the absence of liver toxicity in preclinical studies in rats and marmosets and in single dose clinical studies in humans, increased transaminase activities were observed in healthy subjects in multiple-dose clinical studies. We, therefore, initiated a comprehensive program to find out the mechanisms leading to hepatocellular injury using HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), HepaRG cells (inducible hepatocytes derived from a human hepatic progenitor cell line), and human liver microtissue preparations. Our investigations demonstrated a concentration- and time-dependent reduction of the ATP content of BAL30072-treated HepG2 cells and liver microtissues. BAL30072 impaired oxygen consumption by HepG2 cells at clinically relevant concentrations, inhibited complexes II and III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, BAL 30072 impaired mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, inhibited glycolysis, and was associated with hepatocyte apoptosis. Co-administration of N-acetyl-l-cysteine partially protected hepatocytes from BAL30072-mediated toxicity, underscoring the role of oxidative damage in the observed hepatocellular toxicity. In conclusion, BAL30072 is toxic for liver mitochondria and inhibits glycolysis at clinically relevant concentrations. Impaired hepatic mitochondrial function and inhibition of glycolysis can explain liver injury observed in human subjects receiving long-term treatment with this compound.

Keywords

Monocyclic β-lactams Mitochondrial toxicity Glycolysis Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Hepatotoxicity 

Abbreviations

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

BSO

Buthionine sulphoximine

CYP

Cytochrome P450

DILI

Drug-induced liver injury

DMSO

Dimethylsulfoxide

DPBS

Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline

ECAR

Extracellular acidification rate

FCCP

Carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone

FDA

Food and drug administration (US)

GAPDH

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GSH

Reduced glutathione

H and E

Hematoxylin and Eosin

HEPES

4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid

HMGB1

High-mobility group protein B1

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

NAC

N-acetyl-l-cysteine

OCR

Oxygen consumption rate

PBS

Phosphate-buffered saline

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

ULN

Upper limit of normal

Notes

Acknowledgements

Scott Eaddy (UNC Institute for Drug Safety Sciences) provided laboratory assistance for quantification of miRNA122 and Total HMGB1 in clinical samples. The authors acknowledge the provision of medical writing services by David Main, Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

SK was a member of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) for the phase 1 studies of BAL30072. FP has acted as a consultant for Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.

Financial support

SK was supported by a grant of the Swiss National Science Foundation (31003A_156270).

The studies investigating the potential of BAL30072 to form reactive metabolites that conjugate covalently to proteins were funded with Federal funds from the Department of Health and Human Services; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response; Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, under Contract No. HHSO100201300010C.

Ethical conduct of clinical studies

The clinical studies of BAL30072 referred to in this manuscript were conducted in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonisation Guideline for Good Clinical Practice E6, with ethical principles consistent with those laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and with applicable local laws and regulations.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 83 kb)
204_2017_1994_MOESM2_ESM.pptx (102 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PPTX 101 kb)
204_2017_1994_MOESM3_ESM.docx (22 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 22 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franziska Paech
    • 1
    • 2
  • Simon Messner
    • 3
  • Jochen Spickermann
    • 4
  • Mathias Wind
    • 4
  • Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann
    • 4
  • Anne Therese Witschi
    • 4
  • Brett A. Howell
    • 5
  • Rachel J. Church
    • 6
  • Jeff Woodhead
    • 5
  • Marc Engelhardt
    • 4
  • Stephan Krähenbühl
    • 1
    • 2
    • 7
    Email author return OK on get
  • Martina Maurer
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Clinical Pharmacology and ToxicologyUniversity HospitalBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of BiomedicineUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.InSphero AGSchlierenSwitzerland
  4. 4.Basilea Pharmaceutica International LtdBaselSwitzerland
  5. 5.The Hamner-UNC Institute for Drug Safety SciencesThe Hamner Institute for Health SciencesResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  6. 6.The UNC Institute for Drug Safety SciencesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  7. 7.Swiss Centre of Applied Human ToxicologyBaselSwitzerland

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