Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 90, Issue 10, pp 2349–2367 | Cite as

Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update

  • Tabea Pflaum
  • Thomas Hausler
  • Claudia Baumung
  • Svenja Ackermann
  • Thomas Kuballa
  • Jürgen Rehm
  • Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Review Article


The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.


Alcoholic beverages Risk assessment Cancer risk Ethanol Acetaldehyde Lead 



The original review of carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages (summary in Table 1) was drafted by DWL and JR in the context of participating as experts during the IARC monographs Vol. 96 meeting on alcoholic beverages in 2007 (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 2010) and was later updated and expanded by quantitative risk assessment (Lachenmeier et al. 2012). For this review, sections about the toxicology of each carcinogen were added, and all data were updated to represent the current knowledge in May 2016. The original material from Lachenmeier et al. (2012) is reused and updated with permission from John Wiley and Sons.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None declared.

Ethical standards

This manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.


  1. Abraham K, Mielke H, Lampen A (2012) Hazard characterization of 3-MCPD using benchmark dose modeling: factors influencing the outcome. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 114:1225–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilar MV, Martinez MC, Masoud TA (1987) Arsenic content in some Spanish wines. Influence of the wine-making technique on arsenic content in musts and wines. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 185:185–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. An D, Ough CS (1993) Urea excretion and uptake by wine yeasts as affected by various factors. Am J Enol Vitic 44:35–40Google Scholar
  4. Andrey D (1987) A simple gas chromatography method for the determination of ethylcarbamate in spirits. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 185:21–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrey D, Beuggert H, Ceschi M, Corvi C, de Rossa M, Herrmann A, Klein B, Probst-Hensch N (1992) Monitoring-programm ‘Schwermetalle in Lebensmitteln’. IV. Blei, Cadmium, Kupfer und Zink in Weinen auf dem Schweizer Markt. Teil B: Vorgehen, Resultate und Diskussion. [Monitoring programme for heavy metals in food. IV. Lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in wine on the Swiss market. Part B: methods, results and discussion.]. Mitt Geb Lebensm Hyg 83:711–736Google Scholar
  6. Aresta M, Boscolo M, Franco DW (2001) Copper(II) catalysis in cyanide conversion into ethyl carbamate in spirits and relevant reactions. J Agric Food Chem 49:2819–2824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Babor T, Caetano R, Casswell S, Edwards G, Giesbrecht N, Graham K, Grube J, Hill L, Holder H, Homel R, Livingstone M, Österberg E, Rehm J, Room R, Rossow I (2010) Alcohol: No ordinary commodity. Research and public policy, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bagnardi V, Rota M, Botteri E, Tramacere I, Islami F, Fedirko V, Scotti L, Jenab M, Turati F, Pasquali E, Pelucchi C, Bellocco R, Negri E, Corrao G, Rehm J, Boffetta P, La VC (2013) Light alcohol drinking and cancer: a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 24:301–308. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mds337 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barbaste M, Medina B, Perez-Trujillo JP (2003) Analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium in wines from the Canary Islands, Spain, by ICP/MS. Food Addit Contam 20:141–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barbin A (2000) Etheno-adduct-forming chemicals: from mutagenicity testing to tumor mutation spectra. Mutat Res 462:55–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barlow S, Bolger M, Pitt JI, Verger P (2008) Ochratoxin A (addendum). WHO Food Additives Series 59. Safety evaluation of certain contaminants in food. Prepared by the sixty-eighth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), WHO and FAO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 357–429Google Scholar
  12. Battaglia R, Conacher HBS, Page BD (1990) Ethyl carbamate (urethane) in alcoholic beverages and foods: a review. Food Addit Contam 7:477–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baumann U, Zimmerli B (1988) Accelerated ethyl carbamate formation in spirits. Mitt Geb Lebensm Hyg 79:175–185Google Scholar
  14. Baxter ED, Booer CD, Muller RE, O’Shaugnessy C, Slaiding IR (2005) Minimizing acrylamide and 3-MCPD in crystal malts; effects on flavour. Proc Congr Eur Brew Conv 30:163-1–163/6Google Scholar
  15. Beland FA, Benson RW, Mellick PW, Kovatch RM, Roberts DW, Fang JL, Doerge DR (2005) Effect of ethanol on the tumorigenicity of urethane (ethyl carbamate) in B6C3F1 mice. Food Chem Toxicol 43:1–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bellver SJ, Fernandez-Franzon M, Ruiz MJ, Juan-Garcia A (2014) Presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxin in alcoholic drinks from southern European countries: wine and beer. J Agric Food Chem 62:7643–7651. doi: 10.1021/jf501737h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benford DJ, Alexander J, Baines J, Bellinger DC, Carrington C, Devesa i Peréz VA, Uxbury J, Fawell J, Hailemariam K, Montoro R, Ng J, Slob W, Veléz D, Yager JW, Zang Y (2011) Arsenic (Addendum). WHO Food Additives Series 63. Safety evaluation of certain contaminants in food. Prepared by the seventy-second meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), WHO and FAO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 153–316Google Scholar
  18. BfR (2016) Provisional assessment of glyphosate in beer. BfR Communication No. 005/2016, 25 February 2016. Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR), BerlinGoogle Scholar
  19. Boberg EW, Miller EC, Miller JA, Poland A, Liem A (1983) Strong evidence from studies with brachymorphic mice and pentachlorophenol that 1′-sulfooxysafrole is the major ultimate electrophilic and carcinogenic metabolite of 1′-hydroxysafrole in mouse liver. Cancer Res 43:5163–5173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boettcher MI, Schettgen T, Kutting B, Pischetsrieder M, Angerer J (2005) Mercapturic acids of acrylamide and glycidamide as biomarkers of the internal exposure to acrylamide in the general population. Mutat Res 580:167–176. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2004.11.010 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Breitling-Utzmann CM, Kobler H, Herbolzheimer D, Maier A (2003) 3-MCPD—occurrence in bread crust and various food groups as well as formation in toast. Deut Lebensm Rundsch 99:280–285Google Scholar
  22. Burka LT, Washburn KD, Irwin RD (1991) Disposition of [14C]furan in the male F344 rat. J Toxicol Environ Health 34:245–257. doi: 10.1080/15287399109531564 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen LJ, Hecht SS, Peterson LA (1995) Identification of cis-2-butene-1,4-dial as a microsomal metabolite of furan. Chem Res Toxicol 8:903–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen CL, Chiou HY, Hsu LI, Hsueh YM, Wu MM, Chen CJ (2010) Ingested arsenic, characteristics of well water consumption and risk of different histological types of lung cancer in northeastern Taiwan. Environ Res 110:455–462. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2009.08.010 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cho WS, Han BS, Nam KT, Park K, Choi M, Kim SH, Jeong J, Jang DD (2008) Carcinogenicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol 46:3172–3177. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.07.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Codex alimentarius (1997) Codex general standard for contaminants and toxins in foods (CODEX STAN 193-1995, Rev. 1-1997). Accessed on 31 July 2008
  27. Codex alimentarius (2003) Maximum levels for lead (CODEX STAN 230-2001, Rev. 1-2003). Accessed on 19 Nov 2007
  28. European Commission (2010) Commission recommendation of 2 March 2010 on the prevention and reduction of ethyl carbamate contamination in stone fruit spirits and stone fruit marc spirits and on the monitoring of ethyl carbamate levels in these beverages. Off J Eur Union L52:53–57Google Scholar
  29. European Council (1993) Council Regulation (EEC) no 315/93 laying down community procedures for contaminants in food. Off J Eur Commun L37:1–3Google Scholar
  30. Cox WM, Klinger E (1983) Discriminability of regular, light, and alcoholic and nonalcoholic near beer. J Stud Alcohol 44:494–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Creppy EE (1999) Human ochratoxicosis. J Toxicol -Toxin Rev 18:277–293Google Scholar
  32. Curro P, Micali G, Lanuzza F (1987) Determination of beta-asarone, safrole, isosafrole and anethole in alcoholic drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 404:273–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dennis MJ, Massey RC, Ginn R, Willetts P, Crews C, Parker I (1997) The contribution of azodicarbonamide to ethyl carbamate formation in bread and beer. Food Addit Contam 14:101–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Donhauser S, Wagner D, Jacob F (1987) Critical trace-elements in brewing technology. 2. Occurrence of arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury and selenium in beer. Monatsschr Brauwissensch 40:328–333Google Scholar
  35. Dupire S (2003) Highlights symposium “mycotoxins and other contaminants in the malting and brewing industries”. Proc Congr Eur Brew Conv 29:129-1–129/10Google Scholar
  36. EFSA (2007a) Ethyl carbamate and hydrocyanic acid in food and beverages. EFSA J 551:1–44Google Scholar
  37. EFSA (2007b) Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to the potential increase of consumer health risk by a possible increase of the existing maximum levels for aflatoxins in almonds, hazelnuts and pistachios and derived products. EFSA J 446:1–127Google Scholar
  38. EFSA (2010) Scientific opinion on lead in food. EFSA J 8:1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. EFSA (2011a) Scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of caramel colours (E 150 a–d) as food additives. EFSA J 9:2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. EFSA (2011b) Update on furan levels in food from monitoring years 2004–2010 and exposure assessment. EFSA J 9:2347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. EFSA (2012a) Cadmium dietary exposure in the European population. EFSA J 10:2551. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2551 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. EFSA (2012b) Lead dietary exposure in the European population. EFSA J 10:2831. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2831 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. EFSA (2015) Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance glyphosate. EFSA J 13:4302. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. EMA (2014) Public statement on the use of herbal medicinal products containing pulegone and menthofuran. European Medicines Agency, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Eschnauer HR, Ostapczuk P (1992) Blei-Spuren in Weinen juengerer Jahrgange. Bestimmung mit der potentiometrischen stripping Analyse (PSA). [Lead traces in wines of recent vintages. Determination by potentiometric stripping analysis.]. Vitic Enol Sci 47:206–209Google Scholar
  46. Esti M, Benucci I, Liburdi K, Acciaro G (2012) Monitoring of ochratoxin A fate during alcoholic fermentation of wine-must. Food Control 27:53–56. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.02.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. European Parliament and Council (2008) Regulation (EC) No 1334/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on flavourings and certain food ingredients with flavouring properties for use in and on foods and amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 1601/91, Regulations (EC) No 2232/96 and (EC) No 110/2008 and Directive 2000/13/EC. Off J Eur Union L354:34–50Google Scholar
  48. Feron VJ, Til HP, de Vrijer F, Woutersen RA, Cassee FR, van Bladeren PJ (1991) Aldehydes: occurrence, carcinogenic potential, mechanism of action and risk assessment. Mutat Res 259:363–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Galli CL, Galli G, Tragni E, Caruso D, Fiecchi A (1984) Quantitative analysis of α, β-thujone, pulegone, safrole, coumarin and β-asarone in alcoholic beverages by selected-ion monitoring. J Appl Toxicol 4:273–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gardner LK, Lawrence GD (1993) Benzene production from decarboxylation of benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid and a transition-metal catalyst. J Agric Food Chem 41:693–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Geller ES, Kalsher MJ, Clarke SW (1991) Beer versus mixed-drink consumption at fraternity parties: a time and place for low-alcohol alternatives. J Stud Alcohol 52:197–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gold LS, Slone TH, Bernstein L (1989) Summary of carcinogenic potency and positivity for 492 rodent carcinogens in the carcinogenic potency database. Environ Health Perspect 79:259–272PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gold LS, Ames BN, Slone TH (2008) How many fold lower is human exposure than the dose that gave rodents cancer: margin of exposure, MOE (Rodent Cancer Dose/Human Exposure). Carcinogenic Potency Project, University of California, Berkeley. URL: Accessed on 11 Aug 2009. (Archived by WebCite® at
  54. Guengerich FP, Kim DH (1991) Enzymatic oxidation of ethyl carbamate to vinyl carbamate and its role as an intermediate in the formation of 1, N6-ethenoadenosine. Chem Res Toxicol 4:413–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gutsche B, Weisshaar R, Buhlert J (2002) Acrylamide in food—screening results from food control in Baden-Württemberg. Deut Lebensm Rundsch 98:437–443Google Scholar
  56. Hamlet CG, Jayaratne SM, Matthews W (2002) 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in food ingredients from UK food producers and ingredient suppliers. Food Addit Contam 19:15–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hileman B (2006) Dispute over benzene in drinks. Chem Eng News 84:10Google Scholar
  58. Höhler D (1998) Ochratoxin A in food and feed: occurrence, legislation and mode of action. Z Ernährungswiss 37:2–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Holmberg B, Ekström T (1995) The effects of long-term oral administration of ethanol on Sprague-Dawley rats—a condensed report. Toxicology 96:133–145. doi: 10.1016/0300-483X(94)02917-J PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. IARC (1987) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Suppl. 7. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  61. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1978) N-Nitrosodimethylamine. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 17:125–175Google Scholar
  62. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1988) Alcohol drinking. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 44:1–416Google Scholar
  63. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1993) Ochratoxin A. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 56:489–521Google Scholar
  64. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1994) Acrylamide. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 60:389–433Google Scholar
  65. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1995) Furan. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 63:393–407Google Scholar
  66. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2006a) Formaldehyde. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 88:39–325Google Scholar
  67. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2006b) Inorganic and organic lead compounds. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 87:39–468Google Scholar
  68. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2010) Alcohol consumption and ethyl carbamate. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 96:1–1428Google Scholar
  69. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012a) 3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 101:349–374Google Scholar
  70. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012b) 4-Methylimidazole. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 101:447–459Google Scholar
  71. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012c) Aflatoxins. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 100F:225–248Google Scholar
  72. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012d) Arsenic and arsenic compounds. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 100C:41–93Google Scholar
  73. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012e) Benzene. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 100F:249–294Google Scholar
  74. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012f) Cadmium and cadmium compounds. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 100C:121–145Google Scholar
  75. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012g) Consumption of alcoholic beverages. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 100E:373–499Google Scholar
  76. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012h) Formaldehyde. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 100F:401–435Google Scholar
  77. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2015a) Glyphosate. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 112 (in press) Google Scholar
  78. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2015b) Pulegone. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 108:141–154Google Scholar
  79. Illuminati S, Annibaldi A, Truzzi C, Scarponi G (2014) Recent temporal variations of trace metal content in an Italian white wine. Food Chem 159:493–497. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.058 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. IPCS (2002) Formaldehyde. Concise international chemical assessment document 40. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  81. IPCS (2009) Environmental Health Criteria 239: principles for modelling dose-response for the risk assessment of chemicals. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  82. Jayakody LN, Lane S, Kim H, Jin YS (2016) Mitigating health risks associated with alcoholic beverages through metabolic engineering. Curr Opin Biotechnol 37:173–181. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2015.12.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jendral JA, Monakhova YB, Lachenmeier DW (2011) Formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: large chemical survey using purpald screening followed by chromotropic acid spectrophotometry with multivariate curve resolution. Int J Anal Chem 2011: Article ID 797604. doi: 10.1155/2011/797604
  84. Kaufmann A (1998) Lead in wine. Food Addit Contam 15:437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kim M (2004) Determination of lead and cadmium in wines by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Addit Contam 21:154–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kim E-J, Kim D-K, Lee D-S, Lee T-S, Noh B-S (1995) Application of acid urease to prevent ethyl carbamate formation in Takju processing. Foods Biotechnol 4:34–38Google Scholar
  87. Kitamoto K, Oda K, Gomi K, Takahashi K (1991) Genetic-engineering of a sake yeast producing no urea by successive disruption of arginase gene. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:301–306PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Klejdus B, Moravcová J, Lojková L, Vacek J, Kubán V (2006) Solid phase extraction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4MeI) and 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-imidazole (THI) from foods and beverages with subsequent liquid chromatographic electrospray mass spectrometric quantification. J Sep Sci 29:378–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kobashi K, Takebe S, Sakai T (1988) Removal of urea from alcoholic beverages with an acid urease. J Appl Toxicol 8:73–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kodama S, Yotsuzuka F (1996) Acid urease: reduction of ethyl carbamate formation in sherry under simulated baking conditions. J Food Sci 61:304–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kozakiewicz Z, Battilani P, Cabañes J, Venâncio A, Mulè G, Tjamos E, Lichter A, Magan N, Sanchis V, Lebrihi A, Zinzani G, Minguez S (2004) Making wine safer: the case of ochratoxin A. In: Barug D, van Egmond H, Lopez-Garcia R, van Osenbruggen T, Visconti A (eds) Meeting the mycotoxin menace. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, pp 133–142Google Scholar
  92. Lachenmeier DW (2008) Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity. J Occup Med Toxicol 3:26. doi: 10.1186/1745-6673-3-26 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lachenmeier DW, Fügel D (2007) Reduction of nitrosamines in beer—review of a success story. Brew Sci 60:84–89Google Scholar
  94. Lachenmeier DW, Rehm J (2015) Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach. Sci Rep 5:8126. doi: 10.1038/srep08126 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lachenmeier DW, Sohnius E-M (2008) The role of acetaldehyde outside ethanol metabolism in the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages: evidence from a large chemical survey. Food Chem Toxicol 46:2903–2911. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.05.034 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lachenmeier DW, Schehl B, Kuballa T, Frank W, Senn T (2005) Retrospective trends and current status of ethyl carbamate in German stone-fruit spirits. Food Addit Contam 22:397–405. doi: 10.1080/02652030500073360 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lachenmeier DW, Reusch H, Sproll C, Schoeberl K, Kuballa T (2008) Occurence of benzene as heat-induced contaminant of carrot juice for babies in a general survey of beverages. Food Addit Contam 25:1216–1224. doi: 10.1080/02652030802036230 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lachenmeier DW, Kanteres F, Rehm J (2009) Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism. Addiction 104:533–550. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02516.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lachenmeier DW, Kuballa T, Reusch H, Sproll C, Kersting M, Alexy U (2010a) Benzene in infant carrot juice: further insight into formation mechanism and risk assessment including consumption data from the DONALD study. Food Chem Toxicol 48:291–297. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lachenmeier DW, Lima MC, Nóbrega IC, Pereira JA, Kerr-Corrêa F, Kanteres F, Rehm J (2010b) Cancer risk assessment of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Brazil with special consideration to the spirits cachaça and tiquira. BMC Cancer 10:266. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-266 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lachenmeier DW, Kanteres F, Rehm J (2011a) Epidemiology-based risk assessment using the benchmark dose/margin of exposure approach: the example of ethanol and liver cirrhosis. Int J Epidemiol 40:210–218. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyq150 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lachenmeier DW, Leitz J, Schoeberl K, Kuballa T, Straub I, Rehm J (2011b) Quality of illegally and informally produced alcohol in Europe: results from the AMPHORA project. Adicciones 23:133–140. doi: 10.20882/adicciones.156 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lachenmeier DW, Schoeberl K, Kanteres F, Kuballa T, Sohnius E-M, Rehm J (2011c) Is contaminated alcohol a health problem in the European Union? A review of existing and methodological outline for future studies. Addiction 106(Suppl. 1):20–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03322.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lachenmeier DW, Przybylski MC, Rehm J (2012) Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach. Int J Cancer 131:E995–E1003. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27553 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lachenmeier DW, Godelmann R, Witt B, Riedel K, Rehm J (2014) Can resveratrol in wine protect against the carcinogenicity of ethanol? A probabilistic dose-response assessment. Int J Cancer 134:144–153. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28336 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lachenmeier DW, Gill JS, Chick J, Rehm J (2015) The total margin of exposure of ethanol and acetaldehyde for heavy drinkers consuming cider or vodka. Food Chem Toxicol 83:210–214. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.05.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lamy L (1910) Étude de statistique clinique de 134 cas de cancer de l’œsophage et du cardia. Arch Mal Appar Digest 4:451–475Google Scholar
  108. Lijinsky W (1999) N-Nitroso compounds in the diet. Mutat Res 443:129–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lobinski R, Witte C, Adams FC, Teissedre PL, Cabanis JC, Boutron CF (1994) Organolead in wine. Nature 370:24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Loch C, Reusch H, Ruge I, Godelmann R, Pflaum T, Kuballa T, Schumacher S, Lachenmeier DW (2016) Benzaldehyde in cherry flavour as a precursor of benzene formation in beverages. Food Chem 206:74–77. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.034 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Long DG (1999) From cobalt to chloropropanol: de tribulationibus aptis cerevisiis imbibendis. J Inst Brew 105:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lopez de Cerain A, Gonzalez-Penas E, Jimenez AM, Bello J (2002) Contribution to the study of ochratoxin A in Spanish wines. Food Addit Contam 19:1058–1064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lynch BS, Bryant DW, Hook GJ, Nestmann ER, Munro IC (1998) Carcinogenicity of monochloro-1,2-propanediol (alpha-chlorohydrin, 3-MCPD). Int J Toxicol 17:47–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Mably M, Mankotia M, Cavlovic P, Tam J, Wong L, Pantazopoulos P, Calway P, Scott PM (2005) Survey of aflatoxins in beer sold in Canada. Food Addit Contam 22:1252–1257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. MacKenzie WM, Clyne AH, MacDonald LS (1990) Ethyl carbamate formation in grain based spirits. II. The identification and determination of cyanide related species involved in ethyl carbamate formation in Scotch grain whisky. J Inst Brew 96:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Marsh GM, Youk AO, Buchanich JM, Kant IJ, Swaen G (2007) Mortality patterns among workers exposed to acrylamide: updated follow up. J Occup Environ Med 49:82–95. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31802db536 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Martati E, Boersma MG, Spenkelink A, Khadka DB, Punt A, Vervoort J, van Bladeren PJ, Rietjens IM (2011) Physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) model for safrole bioactivation and detoxification in rats. Chem Res Toxicol 24:818–834. doi: 10.1021/tx200032m PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. McLaughlin K (1988) An investigation of the ability of young male and female social drinkers to discriminate between regular, calorie reduced and low alcohol beer. Br J Addict 83:183–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Médina B, Augagneur S, Barbaste M, Grousset FE, Buat-Ménard P (2000) Influence of atmospheric pollution on the lead content of wines. Food Addit Contam 17:435–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mena C, Cabrera C, Lorenzo ML, López MC (1996) Cadmium levels in wine, beer and other alcoholic beverages: possible sources of contamination. Sci Total Environ 181:201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mildau G, Preuß A, Frank W, Heering W (1987) Ethyl carbamate (urethane) in alcoholic beverages: improved analysis and light-dependent formation. Deut Lebensm Rundsch 83:69–74Google Scholar
  122. Miller EC, Swanson AB, Phillips DH, Fletcher TL, Liem A, Miller JA (1983) Structure-activity studies of the carcinogenicities in the mouse and rat of some naturally occurring and synthetic alkenylbenzene derivatives related to safrole and estragole. Cancer Res 43:1124–1134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Milner G (1979) Light alcohol and standard beers: controlled taste discrimination study. Med J Aust 2:383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Mitch WA, Sharp JO, Trussell RR, Valentine RL, Alvarez-Cohen L, Sedlak DL (2003) N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a drinking water contaminant: a review. Environ Eng Sci 20:389–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mo W, He H, Xu X, Huang B, Ren Y (2014) Simultaneous determination of ethyl carbamate, chloropropanols and acrylamide in fermented products, flavoring and related foods by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Food Control 43:251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Monakhova YB, Jendral JA, Lachenmeier DW (2012) The margin of exposure to formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages. Arch Ind Hyg Toxicol 63:227–237. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2201 Google Scholar
  127. Moon JK, Shibamoto T (2011) Formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in Maillard reaction systems. J Agric Food Chem 59:615–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Moser GJ, Foley J, Burnett M, Goldsworthy TL, Maronpot R (2009) Furan-induced dose-response relationships for liver cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and tumorigenicity (furan-induced liver tumorigenicity). Exp Toxicol Pathol 61:101–111. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2008.06.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mueller U, Agudo A, Carrington C, Doerge D, Hellenäs KE, Leblanc JC, Rao M, Renwick A, Slob W, Wu Y (2011) Acrylamide (Addendum). WHO Food Additives Series 63. Safety evaluation of certain contaminants in food. Prepared by the seventy-second meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA),WHO and FAO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 1–151Google Scholar
  130. Muller RE, Booer CD, Slaiding IR, Baxter ED (2005) Modeling the formation of heat generated toxins during the processing of malt. Proc Congr Eur Brew Conv 30:167-1–167/12Google Scholar
  131. Nagatomi Y, Yoshioka T, Yanagisawa M, Uyama A, Mochizuki N (2013) Simultaneous LC–MS/MS analysis of glyphosate, glufosinate, and their metabolic products in beer, barley tea, and their ingredients. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77:2218–2221. doi: 10.1271/bbb.130433 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Nakajima M, Tsubouchi H, Miyabe M (1999) A survey of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in domestic and imported beers in Japan by immunoaffinity and liquid chromatography. J AOAC Int 82:897–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Navas-Acien A, Tellez-Plaza M, Guallar E, Muntner P, Silbergeld E, Jaar B, Weaver V (2009) Blood cadmium and lead and chronic kidney disease in US adults: a joint analysis. Am J Epidemiol 170:1156–1164. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwp248 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. NTP (1989) Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of ochratoxin A (CAS No. 303-47-9) in F344/N rats (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 358:1–142Google Scholar
  135. NTP (2004) NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogensis. Studies of urethane, ethanol, and urethane/ethanol (urethane, CAS No. 51-79-6; ethanol, CAS No. 64-17-5) in B6C3F1 mice (drinking water studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 510:1–346Google Scholar
  136. NTP (2007) Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 4-methylimidazole (Cas No. 822-36-6) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 535:1–274Google Scholar
  137. NTP (2011a) NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogensis. Studies of acrylamide (CAS No. 79-06-1) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water study). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 575:1–252Google Scholar
  138. NTP (2011b) NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogensis. Studies of pulegone (CAS No. 89-82-7) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage study). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 563:1–202Google Scholar
  139. NTP (2014a) Acrylamide. Report on carcinogens, 13th edn. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Research Triangle Park, NCGoogle Scholar
  140. NTP (2014b) NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogensis. Studies of glycidamide (CAS No. 5694-00-8) in F344/N Nctr rats and B6C3F1/Nctr mice (drinking water study). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 588:1–276Google Scholar
  141. Odhav B, Naicker V (2002) Mycotoxins in South African traditionally brewed beers. Food Addit Contam 19:55–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Otteneder H, Majerus P (2000) Occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines: influence of the type of wine and its geographical origin. Food Addit Contam 17:793–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ough CS, Trioli G (1988) Urea removal from wine by an acid urease. Am J Enol Vitic 39:303–307Google Scholar
  144. Ough CS, Crowell EA, Mooney LA (1988) Formation of ethyl carbamate precursors during grape juice (chardonnay) fermentation. 1. Addition of amino-acids, urea, and ammonia—effects of fortification on intracellular and extracellular precursors. Am J Enol Vitic 39:243–249Google Scholar
  145. Park KK, Liem A, Stewart BC, Miller JA (1993) Vinyl carbamate epoxide, a major strong electrophilic, mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of vinyl carbamate and ethyl carbamate (urethane). Carcinogenesis 14:441–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Parry CD, Patra J, Rehm J (2011) Alcohol consumption and non-communicable diseases: epidemiology and policy implications. Addiction 106:1718–1724. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03605.x PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Peterson LA, Cummings ME, Vu CC, Matter BA (2005) Glutathione trapping to measure microsomal oxidation of furan to cis-2-butene-1,4-dial. Drug Metab Dispos 33:1453–1458. doi: 10.1124/dmd.105.004432 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Peto R, Gray R, Brantom P, Grasso P (1991a) Dose and time relationships for tumor induction in the liver and esophagus of 4080 inbred rats by chronic ingestion of N-nitrosodiethylamine or N-nitrosodimethylamine. Cancer Res 51:6452–6469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Peto R, Gray R, Brantom P, Grasso P (1991b) Effects on 4080 rats of chronic ingestion of N-nitrosodiethylamine or N-nitrosodimethylamine: a detailed dose-response study. Cancer Res 51:6415–6451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Portier CJ, Armstrong BK, Baguley BC et al (2016) Differences in the carcinogenic evaluation of glyphosate between the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). J Epidemiol Community Health. doi: 10.1136/jech-2015-207005
  151. Praud D, Rota M, Rehm J, Shield K, Zatonski W, Hashibe M, La VC, Boffetta P (2016) Cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol consumption. Int J Cancer 138:1380–1387. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29890 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Przyborski H, Bandion F (1992) Zur bestimmung von β-asaron, pulegon, safrol, santonin und thujon in spirituosen und wein. Mitt Klosterneuburg 42:171–178Google Scholar
  153. Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW, Room R (2014) Why does society accept a higher risk for alcohol than for other voluntary or involuntary risks? BMC Med 12:189. doi: 10.1186/s12916-014-0189-z PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW, Jané Llopis E, Imtiaz S, Anderson P (2016) Evidence of reducing ethanol content in beverages to reduce harmful use of alcohol. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol accepted (in press) Google Scholar
  155. Rosman KJR, Chisholm W, Jimi S, Candelone JP, Boutron CF, Teissedre PL, Adams FC (1998) Lead concentrations and isotopic signatures in vintages of French wine between 1950 and 1991. Environ Res A 78:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rothman N, Li GL, Dosemeci M, Bechtold WE, Marti GE, Wang YZ, Linet M, Xi LQ, Lu W, Smith MT, Titenko-Holland N, Zhang LP, Blot W, Yin SN, Hayes RB (1996) Hematotoxicity among Chinese workers heavily exposed to benzene. Am J Ind Med 29:236–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Salvo F, Ll Pera, Bella Gd, Nicotina M, Dugo G (2003) Influence of different mineral and organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines. J Agric Food Chem 51:1090–1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. SCF (2002) Opinion of the scientific committee on food on the safety of the presence of safrole (1-allyl-3,4-methylene dioxy benzene) in flavouring and other food ingredients with flavouring properties. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  159. Schehl B, Lachenmeier DW, Senn T, Heinisch JJ (2005) Effect of the stone content on the quality of plum and cherry spirits produced from mash fermentations with commercial and laboratory yeast strains. J Agric Food Chem 53:8230–8238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Schehl B, Senn T, Lachenmeier DW, Rodicio R, Heinisch JJ (2007) Contribution of the fermenting yeast strain to ethyl carbamate generation in stone fruit spirits. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74:843–850. doi: 10.1007/s00253-006-0736-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Schlee C, Markova M, Schrank J, Laplagne F, Schneider R, Lachenmeier DW (2013) Determination of 2-methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole and 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole in caramel colours and cola using LC/MS/MS. J Chromatogr B Anal Technol Biomed Life Sci 927:223–226. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.10.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Scott PM (1996) Mycotoxins transmitted into beer from contaminated grains during brewing. J AOAC Int 79:875–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Segal DS, Stockwell T (2009) Low alcohol alternatives: a promising strategy for reducing alcohol related harm. Int J Drug Policy 20:183–187. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2008.06.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Seitz HK, Stickel F (2007) Molecular mechanisms of alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer 7:599–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Seitz HK, Czygan P, Kommerell B (1982) Ethanol and carcinogenesis (in German). Leber Magen Darm 12:95–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Sherlock JC, Pickford CJ, White GF (1986) Lead in alcoholic beverages. Food Addit Contam 3:347–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Shield KD, Parry C, Rehm J (2013) Chronic diseases and conditions related to alcohol use. Alcohol Res 35:155–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Smart GA, Pickford CJ, Sherlock JC (1990) Lead in alcoholic beverages: a second survey. Food Addit Contam 7:93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Cevolani D, Guarino M, Padovani M, Maltoni C (2002a) Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol in rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci 982:46–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Lambertin L, Lauriola M, Padovani M, Maltoni C (2002b) Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci 982:87–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Spiegelhalder B, Eisenbrand G, Preussmann R (1979) Contamination of beer with trace quantities of N-nitrosodimethylamine. Food Cosmet Toxicol 17:29–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Steinbrenner N, Löbell-Behrends S, Reusch H, Kuballa T, Lachenmeier DW (2010) Benzol in Lebensmitteln—ein Überblick [in German]. J Verbr Lebensm 5:443–452. doi: 10.1007/s00003-010-0621-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Suzuki K, Kamimura H, Ibe A, Tabata S, Yasuda K, Nishijima M (2001) Formation of ethyl carbamate in umeshu (plum liqueur). Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 42:354–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Svejkovská B, Novotný O, Divinová V, Réblová Z, Doležal M, Velíšek J (2004) Esters of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in foodstuffs. Czech J Food Sci 22:190–196Google Scholar
  175. Tahvonen R (1998) Lead and cadmium in beverages consumed in Finland. Food Addit Contam 15:446–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Taki N, Imamura L, Takebe S, Kobashi K (1992) Cyanate as a precursor of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages. Jpn J Toxicol Environ Health 38:498–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Tareke E, Rydberg P, Karlsson P, Eriksson S, Törnqvist M (2002) Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. J Agric Food Chem 50:4998–5006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Tegmo-Larsson IM, Henick-Kling T (1990) Ethyl carbamate precursors in grape juice and the efficiency of acid urease on their removal. Am J Enol Vitic 41:189–192Google Scholar
  179. Teissedre PL, Lobinski R, Cabanis MT, Szpunar-Lobinska J, Cabanis JC, Adams FC (1994) On the origin of organolead compounds in wine. Sci Total Environ 153:247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Til HP, Woutersen RA, Feron VJ, Clary JJ (1988) Evaluation of the oral toxicity of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in a 4-week drinking-water study in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 26:447–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Til HP, Woutersen RA, Feron VJ, Hollanders VH, Falke HE, Clary JJ (1989) Two-year drinking-water study of formaldehyde in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 27:77–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Tricker AR, Kubacki SJ (1992) Review of the occurrence and formation of non-volatile N-nitroso compounds in foods. Food Addit Contam 9:39–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. US EPA (1998) Formaldehyde (CASRN 50-00-0). Integrated Risk Information System. Document 0419. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  184. US EPA (1998) Cadmium (CASRN 7440-43-9). Integrated Risk Information System. Document 0141. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  185. US EPA (2003) Benzene (CASRN 71-43-2). Integrated Risk Information System. Document 0276. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  186. Uthurry CA, Varela F, Colomo B, Suarez-Lepe JA, Lombardero J, Garcia-del-Hierro JR (2004) Ethyl carbamate concentrations of typical Spanish red wines. Food Chem 88:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Vahl M (1993) A survey of ethyl carbamate in beverages, bread and acidified milks sold in Denmark. Food Addit Contam 10:585–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Vavasour E, Renwick AG, Engeli B, Barlow S, Castle L, DiNovi M, Slob W, Schlatter J, Bolger M (2006) Ethyl carbamate. WHO Food Additives Series 55. Safety evaluation of certain contaminants in food. Prepared by the sixty-fourth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), WHO and FAO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 205–316Google Scholar
  189. Wenzl T, Lachenmeier DW, Gökmen V (2007) Analysis of heat-induced contaminants (acrylamide, chloropropanols and furan) in carbohydrate-rich food. Anal Bioanal Chem 389:119–137. doi: 10.1007/s00216-007-1459-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. WHO (2016) Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH). World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Accessed 17 Mar 2016
  191. Williams GM, Arisseto AP, Baines J, DiNovi M, Feeley M, Schlatter J, Slob W, Toledo MCF, Vavasour E (2011) Furan. WHO Food Additives Series 63. Safety evaluation of certain contaminants in food. Prepared by the seventy-second meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), WHO and FAO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 487–603Google Scholar
  192. Woutersen RA, Appelman LM, Van Garderen-Hoetmer A, Feron VJ (1986) Inhalation toxicity of acetaldehyde in rats. III. Carcinogenicity study. Toxicology 41:213–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wu QJ, Lin H, Fan W, Dong JJ, Chen HL (2006) Investigation into benzene, trihalomethanes and formaldehyde in Chinese lager beers. J Inst Brew 112:291–294. doi: 10.1002/j.2050-0416.2006.tb00733.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wucherpfennig K, Clauss E, Konja G (1987) Formation of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages based on the maraschino cherry. Deut Lebensm Rundsch 83:344–349Google Scholar
  195. Yeh FS, Yu MC, Mo CC, Luo S, Tong MJ, Henderson BE (1989) Hepatitis B virus, aflatoxins, and hepatocellular carcinoma in southern Guangxi, China. Cancer Res 49:2506–2509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Yoshikawa S, Fujiwara M (1981) Determination of 4(5)-methylimidazole in food by thin layer chromatography. J Food Hyg Soc Jpn 22:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Zeilmaker MJ, Bakker MI, Schothorst R, Slob W (2010) Risk assessment of N-nitrosodimethylamine formed endogenously after fish-with-vegetable meals. Toxicol Sci 116:323–335. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq093 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zimmerli B, Schlatter J (1991) Ethyl carbamate: analytical methodology, occurrence, formation, biological activity and risk assessment. Mutat Res 259:325–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) KarlsruheKarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)TorontoCanada
  3. 3.Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, CAMHTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Institute of Medical Science (IMS)University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Dalla Lana School of Public HealthUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  7. 7.Institute for Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyTU DresdenDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations