Full biological characterization of human pluripotent stem cells will open the door to translational research
- 757 Downloads
Since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC), great hopes were held for their therapeutic application including disease modeling, drug discovery screenings, toxicological screenings and regenerative therapy. hESC and hiPSC have the advantage of indefinite self-renewal, thereby generating an inexhaustible pool of cells with, e.g., specific genotype for developing putative treatments; they can differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers enabling autologous transplantation, and via donor-selection they can express various genotypes of interest for better disease modeling. Furthermore, drug screenings and toxicological screenings in hESC and hiPSC are more pertinent to identify drugs or chemical compounds that are harmful for human, than a mouse model could predict. Despite continuing research in the wide field of therapeutic applications, further understanding of the underlying basic mechanisms of stem cell function is necessary. Here, we summarize current knowledge concerning pluripotency, self-renewal, apoptosis, motility, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.
KeywordsEmbryonic stem cells Induced pluripotent stem cells Self-renewal Apoptosis Motility Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Chen G, Gulbranson DR, Yu P, Hou Z, Thomson JA (2012) Thermal stability of fibroblast growth factor protein is a determinant factor in regulating self-renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming in human pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells 30:623–630. doi: 10.1002/stem.1021 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Dailey L, Basilico C (2001) Coevolution of HMG domains and homeodomains and the generation of transcriptional regulation by Sox/POU complexes. J Cell Physiol 186:315–328. doi: 10.1002/1097-4652(2001)9999:9999<000:AID-JCP1046>3.0.CO;2-Y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fan J, Robert C, Jang YY, Liu H, Sharkis S, Baylin SB, Rassool FV (2011) Human induced pluripotent cells resemble embryonic stem cells demonstrating enhanced levels of DNA repair and efficacy of nonhomologous end-joining. Mutat Res 713:8–17. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2011.05.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kajabadi NS et al (2015) The synergistic enhancement of cloning efficiency in individualized human pluripotent stem cells by peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) activation and rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibition. J Biol Chem 290:26303–26313. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.624841 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lam AQ, Freedman BS, Morizane R, Lerou PH, Valerius MT, Bonventre JV (2014) Rapid and efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intermediate mesoderm that forms tubules expressing kidney proximal tubular markers. J Am Soc Nephrol 25:1211–1225. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2013080831 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Momcilovic O, Choi S, Varum S, Bakkenist C, Schatten G, Navara C (2009) Ionizing radiation induces ataxia telangiectasia mutated-dependent checkpoint signaling and G(2) but not G(1) cell cycle arrest in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells 27:1822–1835. doi: 10.1002/stem.123 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mullin R (2014) Tufts study finds big rise in cost of drug development. Chem Eng News. http://cen.acs.org/articles/92/i47/Tufts-Study-Finds-Big-Rise.html?type=paidArticleContent. Accessed May 2016
- Sherbert G (2011) Growth factors and their receptors in cell differentiation, cancer and cancer therapy. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Ullmann U, Gilles C, De Rycke M, Van de Velde H, Sermon K, Liebaers I (2008) GSK-3-specific inhibitor-supplemented hESC medium prevents the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in hESCs cultured in feeder-free conditions. Mol Hum Reprod 14:169–179. doi: 10.1093/molehr/gan001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar