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Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 90, Issue 3, pp 551–557 | Cite as

Quantification of tetrabromo benzoic acid and tetrabromo phthalic acid in rats exposed to the flame retardant Uniplex FPR-45

  • Manori J. SilvaEmail author
  • Donald Hilton
  • Johnathan Furr
  • L. Earl Gray
  • James L. Preau
  • Antonia M. Calafat
  • Xiaoyun Ye
Toxicokinetics and Metabolism

Abstract

The first withdrawal of certain polybrominated diphenyl ethers flame retardants from the US market occurred in 2004. Since then, use of brominated non-PBDE compounds such as bis(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) in commercial formulations has increased. Assessing human exposure to these chemicals requires identifying metabolites that can potentially serve as their biomarkers of exposure. We administered by gavage a dose of 500 mg/Kg bw of Uniplex FRP-45 (>95 % BEH-TEBP) to nine adult female Sprague–Dawley rats. Using authentic standards and mass spectrometry, we positively identified and quantified 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo benzoic acid (TBBA) and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo phthalic acid (TBPA) in 24-h urine samples collected 1 day after dosing the rats and in serum at necropsy, 2 days post-exposure. Interestingly, TBBA and TBPA concentrations correlated well (R 2 = 0.92). The levels of TBBA, a known metabolite of EH-TBB, were much higher than the levels of TBPA both in urine and serum. Because Uniplex FRP-45 was technical grade and EH-TBB was present in the formulation, TBBA likely resulted from the metabolism of EH-TBB. Taken together, our data suggest that TBBA and TBPA may serve as biomarkers of exposure to non-PBDE brominated flame retardant mixtures. Additional research can provide useful information to better understand the composition and in vivo toxicokinetics of these commercial mixtures.

Keywords

Flame retardant EH-TBB BEH-TEBP Bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate 2-Ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate Tetrabromo benzoic acid Tetrabromo phthalic acid 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no competing financial or other conflicts of interests.

Supplementary material

204_2015_1489_MOESM1_ESM.docx (201 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 200 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manori J. Silva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Donald Hilton
    • 1
  • Johnathan Furr
    • 2
  • L. Earl Gray
    • 2
  • James L. Preau
    • 1
  • Antonia M. Calafat
    • 1
  • Xiaoyun Ye
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Laboratory SciencesNational Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Reproductive Toxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and DevelopmentU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA

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