Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 89, Issue 5, pp 687–709 | Cite as

Developmental neurotoxicity of persistent organic pollutants: an update on childhood outcome

  • Sietske A. Berghuis
  • Arend F. Bos
  • Pieter J. J. Sauer
  • Elise Roze
Review Article


Organohalogens are persistent organic pollutants that have a wide range of chemical application. There is growing evidence that several of these chemical compounds interfere with human development in various ways. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the relationship between various persistent organic pollutants and childhood neurodevelopmental outcome from studies from the past 10 years. This review focuses on exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and in addition on exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A, and perfluorinated compounds and their associations with neurodevelopmental outcome in childhood, up to 18 years of age. This review shows that exposure to environmental chemicals affects neurodevelopmental outcome in children. Regarding exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs, most studies report no or inverse associations with neurodevelopmental outcomes. Regarding exposure to PBDEs, lower mental development, psychomotor development and IQ were found at preschool age, and poorer attention at school age. Regarding exposure to DDE, most studies reported inverse associations with outcome, while others found no associations. Significant relations were particularly found at early infancy on psychomotor development, on attention and ADHD, whereas at school age, no adverse relationships were described. Additionally, several studies report gender-related vulnerability. Future research should focus on the long-term effects of prenatal and childhood exposure to these environmental chemicals, on sex-specific and combined exposure effects of environmental chemicals, and on possible mechanisms by which these chemicals have their effects on neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes.


Behavior Chemical Environment Infant Neurodevelopment Pollutant 



Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder


Autism spectrum disorder


Auditory Verbal Learning Test


Behavior Assessment System for Children


Bisphenol A


Bayley Scales of Infant Development


Conners’ ADHD/DSM-IV Scales


Child Behavior Checklist


Communicative Development Indices


Central nervous system


Continuous Performance Test


Conners’ Rating Scale for Teachers


Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale


Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire






Intelligence quotient


Inter-quartile range


Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment


Mental Developmental Index


Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale


Neuropsychological Assessment


Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl


Polybrominated diphenyl ether


Polychlorinated biphenyl


Psychomotor Developmental Index


Perfluorinated compound


Perfluorooctanoic acid


Perfluorooctane sulfonate


Persistent organic pollutant


Test of Everyday Attention for Children


Toxic Equivalency Quotient


Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children


Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence



We acknowledge the Junior Scientific Master Class of the Research School for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, The Netherlands, for their financial support.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Aylward LL, Hays SM, Kirman CR, Marchitti SA, Kenneke JF, English C, Mattison DR, Becker RA (2014) Relationships of chemical concentrations in maternal and cord blood: a review of available data. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 17:175–203. doi: 10.1080/10937404.2014.884956 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Berghuis SA, Soechitram SD, Hitzert MM, Sauer PJ, Bos AF (2013) Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites is associated with motor development of three-month-old infants. Neurotoxicology 38:124–130. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2013.07.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berghuis SA, Soechitram SD, Sauer PJ, Bos AF (2014) Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites is associated with neurological functioning in 3-month-old infants. Toxicol Sci 142:455–462. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu196 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Boucher O, Burden MJ, Muckle G, Saint-Amour D, Ayotte P, Dewailly E, Nelson CA, Jacobson SW, Jacobson JL (2012a) Response inhibition and error monitoring during a visual go/no-go task in inuit children exposed to lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and methylmercury. Environ Health Perspect 120:608–615. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1103828 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Boucher O, Jacobson SW, Plusquellec P, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Forget-Dubois N, Jacobson JL, Muckle G (2012b) Prenatal methylmercury, postnatal lead exposure, and evidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among Inuit children in Arctic Quebec. Environ Health Perspect 120:1456–1461. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1204976 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Calafat AM, Yolton K, Ye X, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP (2011) Impact of early-life bisphenol A exposure on behavior and executive function in children. Pediatrics 128:873–882. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-1335 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Caserta D, Mantovani A, Marci R, Fazi A, Ciardo F, La Rocca C, Maranghi F, Moscarini M (2011) Environment and women’s reproductive health. Hum Reprod Update 17:418–433. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmq061 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) Fourth national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. In: Anonymous. GA: Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen A, Yolton K, Rauch SA, Webster GM, Hornung R, Sjodin A, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP (2014) Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and neurodevelopment in U.S. children through 5 years of age: the HOME study. Environ Health Perspect 122:856–862. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1307562 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cho SC, Bhang SY, Hong YC, Shin MS, Kim BN, Kim JW, Yoo HJ, Cho IH, Kim HW (2010) Relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and the intelligence of school-age children. Environ Health Perspect 118:1027–1032. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901376 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Consonni D, Sindaco R, Bertazzi PA (2012) Blood levels of dioxins, furans, dioxin-like PCBs, and TEQs in general populations: a review, 1989–2010. Environ Int 44:151–162. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2012.01.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Darras VM (2008) Endocrine disrupting polyhalogenated organic pollutants interfere with thyroid hormone signalling in the developing brain. Cerebellum 7:26–37. doi: 10.1007/s12311-008-0004-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Doi H, Nishitani S, Fujisawa TX, Nagai T, Kakeyama M, Maeda T, Shinohara K (2013) Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study. PLoS One 8:e59196. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059196 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Engel SM, Berkowitz GS, Barr DB, Teitelbaum SL, Siskind J, Meisel SJ, Wetmur JG, Wolff MS (2007) Prenatal organophosphate metabolite and organochlorine levels and performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in a multiethnic pregnancy cohort. Am J Epidemiol 165:1397–1404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Engel SM, Zhu C, Berkowitz GS, Calafat AM, Silva MJ, Miodovnik A, Wolff MS (2009) Prenatal phthalate exposure and performance on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in a multiethnic birth cohort. Neurotoxicology 30:522–528. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2009.04.001 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Engel SM, Miodovnik A, Canfield RL, Zhu C, Silva MJ, Calafat AM, Wolff MS (2010) Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with childhood behavior and executive functioning. Environ Health Perspect 118:565–571. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901470 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, Fenster L, Johnson C, Barr DB, Jewell NP (2006) In utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment among young Mexican American children. Pediatrics 118:233–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Eskenazi B, Chevrier J, Rosas LG, Anderson HA, Bornman MS, Bouwman H, Chen A, Cohn BA, de Jager C, Henshel DS, Leipzig F, Leipzig JS, Lorenz EC, Snedeker SM, Stapleton D (2009) The Pine River statement: human health consequences of DDT use. Environ Health Perspect 117:1359–1367. doi: 10.1289/ehp.11748 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Eskenazi B, Chevrier J, Rauch SA, Kogut K, Harley KG, Johnson C, Trujillo C, Sjodin A, Bradman A (2013) In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures and neurodevelopment in the CHAMACOS study. Environ Health Perspect 121:257–262. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1205597 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fei C, Olsen J (2011) Prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and behavioral or coordination problems at age 7 years. Environ Health Perspect 119:573–578. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002026 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gascon M, Fort M, Martinez D, Carsin AE, Forns J, Grimalt JO, Santa Marina L, Lertxundi N, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M (2012) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and neuropsychological development in infants. Environ Health Perspect 120:1760–1765. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1205266 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Grandjean P, Weihe P, Nielsen F, Heinzow B, Debes F, Budtz-Jorgensen E (2012) Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet. Neurotoxicol Teratol 34:466–472. doi: 10.1016/ CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gray KA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Zhou H, Darden R, Needham L, Longnecker MP (2005) In utero exposure to background levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and cognitive functioning among school-age children. Am J Epidemiol 162:17–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Halldorsson TI, Rytter D, Haug LS, Bech BH, Danielsen I, Becher G, Henriksen TB, Olsen SF (2012) Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoate and risk of overweight at 20 years of age: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 120:668–673. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104034 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Harley KG, Gunier RB, Kogut K, Johnson C, Bradman A, Calafat AM, Eskenazi B (2013) Prenatal and early childhood bisphenol A concentrations and behavior in school-aged children. Environ Res 126:43–50. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2013.06.004 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Herbstman JB, Sjodin A, Kurzon M, Lederman SA, Jones RS, Rauh V, Needham LL, Tang D, Niedzwiecki M, Wang RY, Perera F (2010) Prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment. Environ Health Perspect 118:712–719. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901340 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hertz-Picciotto I, Bergman A, Fangstrom B, Rose M, Krakowiak P, Pessah I, Hansen R, Bennett DH (2011) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case–control study. Environ Health 10:1-069X-10-1. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-10-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoffman K, Adgent M, Goldman BD, Sjodin A, Daniels JL (2012) Lactational exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and its relation to social and emotional development among toddlers. Environ Health Perspect 120:1438–1442. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1205100 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson-Restrepo B, Addink R, Wong C, Arcaro K, Kannan K (2007) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Massachusetts, USA. J Environ Monit 9:1205–1212. doi: 10.1039/b711409p CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jusko TA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Longnecker MP (2012) In-utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and cognitive development among infants and school-aged children. Epidemiology 23:689–698. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31825fb61d CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kicinski M, Viaene MK, Den Hond E, Schoeters G, Covaci A, Dirtu AC, Nelen V, Bruckers L, Croes K, Sioen I, Baeyens W, Van Larebeke N, Nawrot TS (2012) Neurobehavioral function and low-level exposure to brominated flame retardants in adolescents: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health 11:86-069X-11-86. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-11-86 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim Y, Ha EH, Kim EJ, Park H, Ha M, Kim JH, Hong YC, Chang N, Kim BN (2011) Prenatal exposure to phthalates and infant development at 6 months: prospective Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study. Environ Health Perspect 119:1495–1500. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1003178 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee DH, Jacobs DR, Porta M (2007) Association of serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants with the prevalence of learning disability and attention deficit disorder. J Epidemiol Community Health 61:591–596CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Longnecker MP, Wolff MS, Gladen BC, Brock JW, Grandjean P, Jacobson JL, Korrick SA, Rogan WJ, Weisglas-Kuperus N, Hertz-Picciotto I, Ayotte P, Stewart P, Winneke G, Charles MJ, Jacobson SW, Dewailly E, Boersma ER, Altshul LM, Heinzow B, Pagano JJ, Jensen AA (2003) Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl levels across studies of human neurodevelopment. Environ Health Perspect 111:65–70CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. McDonald TA (2002) A perspective on the potential health risks of PBDEs. Chemosphere 46:745–755CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Meeker JD (2010) Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds and men’s health. Maturitas 66:236–241. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.03.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Meeker JD, Ferguson K (2012) Phthalates: human exposure and related health effects. In: Schecter A (ed) Dioxins and Health, 3rd edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  38. Meeker JD, Hauser R (2010) Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and male reproduction. Syst Biol Reprod Med 56:122–131. doi: 10.3109/19396360903443658 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Meeker JD, Sathyanarayana S, Swan SH (2009) Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:2097–2113. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0268 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Nakajima S, Saijo Y, Kato S, Sasaki S, Uno A, Kanagami N, Hirakawa H, Hori T, Tobiishi K, Todaka T, Nakamura Y, Yanagiya S, Sengoku Y, Iida T, Sata F, Kishi R (2006) Effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on mental and motor development in Japanese children at 6 months of age. Environ Health Perspect 114:773–778CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Newman J, Gallo MV, Schell LM, DeCaprio AP, Denham M, Deane GD, Akwesasne Task Force on Environment (2009) Analysis of PCB congeners related to cognitive functioning in adolescents. Neurotoxicology 30:686–696. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2009.05.006 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ode A, Kallen K, Gustafsson P, Rylander L, Jonsson BA, Olofsson P, Ivarsson SA, Lindh CH, Rignell-Hydbom A (2014) Fetal exposure to perfluorinated compounds and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood. PLoS One 9:e95891. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095891 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Pan IJ, Daniels JL, Goldman BD, Herring AH, Siega-Riz AM, Rogan WJ (2009) Lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and infant neurodevelopment: an analysis of the pregnancy, infection, and nutrition babies study. Environ Health Perspect 117:488–494. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0800063 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Park HY, Park JS, Sovcikova E, Kocan A, Linderholm L, Bergman A, Trnovec T, Hertz-Picciotto I (2009) Exposure to hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the prenatal period and subsequent neurodevelopment in eastern Slovakia. Environ Health Perspect 117:1600–1606. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0900611 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Park HY, Hertz-Picciotto I, Sovcikova E, Kocan A, Drobna B, Trnovec T (2010) Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study. Environ Health 9:51-069X-9-51. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-9-51 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Park S, Kim BN, Cho SC, Kim Y, Kim JW, Lee JY, Hong SB, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Im H, Cheong JH, Han DH (2014) Association between urine phthalate levels and poor attentional performance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with evidence of dopamine gene–phthalate interaction. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:6743–6756. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110706743 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Perera F, Vishnevetsky J, Herbstman JB, Calafat AM, Xiong W, Rauh V, Wang S (2012) Prenatal bisphenol a exposure and child behavior in an inner-city cohort. Environ Health Perspect 120:1190–1194. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104492 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Roze E, Meijer L, Bakker A, Van Braeckel KN, Sauer PJ, Bos AF (2009) Prenatal exposure to organohalogens, including brominated flame retardants, influences motor, cognitive, and behavioral performance at school age. Environ Health Perspect 117:1953–1958. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901015 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Safe S (1990) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related compounds: environmental and mechanistic considerations which support the development of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). Crit Rev Toxicol 21:51–88. doi: 10.3109/10408449009089873 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Sagiv SK, Nugent JK, Brazelton TB, Choi AL, Tolbert PE, Altshul LM, Korrick SA (2008) Prenatal organochlorine exposure and measures of behavior in infancy using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Environ Health Perspect 116:666–673. doi: 10.1289/ehp.10553 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Sagiv SK, Thurston SW, Bellinger DC, Tolbert PE, Altshul LM, Korrick SA (2010) Prenatal organochlorine exposure and behaviors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children. Am J Epidemiol 171:593–601. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwp427 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Sagiv SK, Thurston SW, Bellinger DC, Altshul LM, Korrick SA (2012) Neuropsychological measures of attention and impulse control among 8-year-old children exposed prenatally to organochlorines. Environ Health Perspect 120:904–909. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104372 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Schecter A, Pavuk M, Papke O, Ryan JJ, Birnbaum L, Rosen R (2003) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in US mothers’ milk. Environ Health Perspect 111:1723–1729CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Stein CR, Savitz DA (2011) Serum perfluorinated compound concentration and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children 5–18 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 119:1466–1471. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1003538 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Stein CR, Savitz DA, Bellinger DC (2013) Perfluorooctanoate and neuropsychological outcomes in children. Epidemiology 24:590–599. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182944432 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Stewart PW, Lonky E, Reihman J, Pagano J, Gump BB, Darvill T (2008) The relationship between prenatal PCB exposure and intelligence (IQ) in 9-year-old children. Environ Health Perspect 116:1416–1422. doi: 10.1289/ehp.11058 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Swan SH, Liu F, Hines M, Kruse RL, Wang C, Redmon JB, Sparks A, Weiss B (2010) Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys. Int J Androl 33:259–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.01019.x CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Tellez-Rojo MM, Cantoral A, Cantonwine DE, Schnaas L, Peterson K, Hu H, Meeker JD (2013) Prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites levels and neurodevelopment in children at two and three years of age. Sci Total Environ 461–462:386–390. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.021 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Testa C, Nuti F, Hayek J, De Felice C, Chelli M, Rovero P, Latini G, Papini AM (2012) Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and autism spectrum disorders. ASN Neuro 4:223–229. doi: 10.1042/AN20120015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Tilson HA, Kodavanti PR (1997) Neurochemical effects of polychlorinated biphenyls: an overview and identification of research needs. Neurotoxicology 18:727–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Torres-Sanchez L, Rothenberg SJ, Schnaas L, Cebrian ME, Osorio E, Del Carmen Hernandez M, Garcia-Hernandez RM, Del Rio-Garcia C, Wolff MS, Lopez-Carrillo L (2007) In utero p, p’-DDE exposure and infant neurodevelopment: a perinatal cohort in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 115:435–439. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9566 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Torres-Sanchez L, Schnaas L, Cebrian ME, Hernandez Mdel C, Valencia EO, Garcia Hernandez RM, Lopez-Carrillo L (2009) Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and neurodevelopment: a follow-up from 12 to 30 months of age. Neurotoxicology 30:1162–1165. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2009.08.010 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Vandenberg LN, Colborn T, Hayes TB, Heindel JJ, Jacobs DR Jr, Lee DH, Shioda T, Soto AM, vom Saal FS, Welshons WV, Myers JP (2012) Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocr Rev 33:378–455. doi: 10.1210/er.2011-1050 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. vom Saal FS, Akingbemi BT, Belcher SM, Birnbaum LS, Crain DA, Eriksen M, Farabollini F, Guillette LJ Jr, Hauser R, Heindel JJ, Ho SM, Hunt PA, Iguchi T, Jobling S, Kanno J, Keri RA, Knudsen KE, Laufer H, LeBlanc GA, Marcus M, McLachlan JA, Myers JP, Nadal A, Newbold RR, Olea N, Prins GS, Richter CA, Rubin BS, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Talsness CE, Vandenbergh JG, Vandenberg LN, Walser-Kuntz DR, Watson CS, Welshons WV, Wetherill Y, Zoeller RT (2007) Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure. Reprod Toxicol 24:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Whyatt RM, Liu X, Rauh VA, Calafat AM, Just AC, Hoepner L, Diaz D, Quinn J, Adibi J, Perera FP, Factor-Litvak P (2012) Maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and child mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development at 3 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 120:290–295. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1103705 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Wilson VS, Blystone CR, Hotchkiss AK, Rider CV, Gray LE Jr (2008) Diverse mechanisms of anti-androgen action: impact on male rat reproductive tract development. Int J Androl 31:178–187. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00861.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. United Nations Environment Programme (2001) The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutantsGoogle Scholar
  68. Yolton K, Xu Y, Strauss D, Altaye M, Calafat AM, Khoury J (2011) Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates and infant neurobehavior. Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:558–566. doi: 10.1016/ CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sietske A. Berghuis
    • 1
  • Arend F. Bos
    • 1
  • Pieter J. J. Sauer
    • 1
  • Elise Roze
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children’s HospitalUniversity of Groningen, University Medical Center GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Wilhelmina Children’s HospitalUniversity of Utrecht, University Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations