Polyacrylic acid-coated and non-coated iron oxide nanoparticles induce cytokine activation in human blood cells through TAK1, p38 MAPK and JNK pro-inflammatory pathways
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Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) can have a wide scope of applications in biomedicine, namely in magnetic resonance imaging, tissue repair, drug delivery, hyperthermia, transfection, tissue soldering, and as antimicrobial agents. The safety of these nanoparticles, however, is not completely established, namely concerning their effect on immune system and inflammatory pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-coated ION and non-coated ION on the production of six cytokines [interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10)] by human peripheral blood cells, and to determine the inflammatory pathways involved in this production. The obtained results showed that PAA-coated and non-coated ION were able to induce all the tested cytokines and that activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-activated kinase (TAK1), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) were involved in this effect.
KeywordsIron oxide nanoparticles Human blood cells Inflammation Cytokines Interleukins
Diana Couto acknowledges the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) financial support for the PhD grant (SFRH/BD/72856/2010) and Marisa Freitas for her Pos-doc grant (SFRH/BPD/76909/2011), in the ambit of “POPH–QREN–Tipologia 4.1–Formação Avançada” co-sponsored by FSE and national funds of MCTES. The authors greatly acknowledge the financial support given by Reitoria da Universidade do Porto and Santander Totta for Projectos IJUP 2011.
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflicts of interest concerning the present study.
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