Magnetite- and maghemite-induced different toxicity in murine alveolar macrophage cells
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The unique properties of nanoparticles and biological systems are important factors affecting the biological response following nanoparticle exposure. Iron oxide nanoparticles are classified mainly as magnetite (M-FeNPs) and maghemite (NM-FeNPs). In our previous study, NM-FeNPs induced autophagic cell death in RAW264.7, a murine peritoneal macrophage cell line, which has excellent lysosomal activity. In this study, we compared the toxicity of M-FeNPs and NM-FeNPs in MH-S, a murine alveolar macrophage cell line, which has relatively low lysosomal activity. At 24 h post-exposure, M-FeNPs decreased cell viability and ATP production, and elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines to a higher extent than NM-FeNPs. Damage of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum and the down-regulation of mitochondrial function and transcription-related genes were also higher in cells exposed to M-FeNPs than in cells exposed to NM-FeNPs (50 μg/ml). In addition, cells exposed to M-FeNPs (50 μg/ml) showed an increase in the number of autophagosome-like vacuoles, whereas cells exposed to NM-FeNPs formed large vacuoles in the cytosol. However, an autophagy-related molecular response was not induced by exposure to either FeNPs, unlike the results seen in our previous study with RAW264.7 cells. We suggest that M-FeNPs induced higher toxicity compared to NM-FeNPs in MH-S cells, and lysosomal activity plays an important role in determining cell death pathway.
KeywordsIron nanoparticles Magnetic Toxicity Autophagy Macrophage
This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2011-35B-E00011).
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
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