Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 87, Issue 11, pp 2031–2035 | Cite as

Lanthanum-induced neurotoxicity: solving the riddle of its involvement in cognitive impairment?

  • Apostolos Zarros
  • Ashleigh-Maria Byrne
  • Stephanie D. Boomkamp
  • Stylianos Tsakiris
  • George S. Baillie
Letter to the Editor


The conclusion of a series of recent reports highlights the significant neurotoxic effects that rare earth elements, such as lanthanum (La), can have during neurodevelopment. These findings are, herein, combined and presented using a simplified schematic overview that provides a putative solution to the riddle of La-induced cognitive impairment. Our commentary also highlights potential targets for further investigations into the mechanisms which underpin La-induced neurotoxicity, with a focus on the crucial role of the hippocampus. Within this context, a central role for the cyclic-adenosine monophosphate signalling pathway is proposed.


Lanthanum (La) Neurotoxicity Brain Hippocampus Rare earth elements (REEs) Cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) Signalling Pathway 


Conflict of interest

All authors (AZ, AMB, SDB, ST and GSB) declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Apostolos Zarros
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ashleigh-Maria Byrne
    • 1
  • Stephanie D. Boomkamp
    • 3
  • Stylianos Tsakiris
    • 2
  • George S. Baillie
    • 1
  1. 1.Gardiner Laboratory (535), Wolfson Link Building, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical SciencesUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowScotland, UK
  2. 2.Laboratory of Physiology, Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowScotland, UK

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