Occupational exposure of air crews to tricresyl phosphate isomers and organophosphate flame retardants after fume events
- 918 Downloads
Aircraft cabin air can possibly be contaminated by tricresyl phosphates (TCP) from jet engine oils during fume events. o-TCP, a known neurotoxin, has been addressed to be an agent that might cause the symptoms reported by cabin crews after fume events. A total of 332 urine samples of pilots and cabin crew members in common passenger airplanes, who reported fume/odour during their last flight, were analysed for three isomers of tricresyl phosphate metabolites as well as dialkyl and diaryl phosphate metabolites of four flame retardants. None of the samples contained o-TCP metabolites above the limit of detection (LOD 0.5 μg/l). Only one sample contained metabolites of m- and p-tricresyl phosphates with levels near the LOD. Median metabolite levels of tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) (DBP 0.28 μg/l; BCEP 0.33 μg/l; DPP 1.1 μg/l) were found to be significantly higher than in unexposed persons from the general population. Median tris-(2-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) metabolite levels were significantly not higher in air crews than in controls. Health complaints reported by air crews can hardly be addressed to o-TCP exposure in cabin air. Elevated metabolite levels for TBP, TCEP and TPP in air crews might occur due to traces of hydraulic fluid in cabin air (TBP, TPP) or due to release of commonly used flame retardants from the highly flame protected environment in the airplane. A slight occupational exposure of air crews to organophosphates was shown.
KeywordsHuman biomonitoring Organophosphate flame retardants TCP Tricresyl phosphate
The authors thank the BG Verkehr (German Social Accident Insurance Institution for the transport industry) for their financial support.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- IPCS (International Program on Chemical Safety) (1990) WHO (World health organisation), trikresyl phosphate. EHC 110Google Scholar
- Schindler BK, Förster K, Angerer J (2009a) Determination of human urinary organophosphate flame retardant metabolites by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:375–381. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.12.030 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO (World Health Organisation) (1991). Tri-n-butyl phosphate, EHC 112, GenfGoogle Scholar
- Winder C, Michaelis S (2005b) Crew effects from toxic exposures on aircraft. In: Hutzinger O (ed) Handbook of environmental chemistry, vol 4, Part H. Springer, Berlin, pp 211–228. doi: 10.1007/b107245