Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 87, Issue 2, pp 383–396 | Cite as

Nrf2-mediated redox signaling in arsenic carcinogenesis: a review

  • Dona SinhaEmail author
  • Jaydip Biswas
  • Anupam BishayeeEmail author
Letter to the Editor


Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid whose natural leaching from geogenic resources of earths crust into groundwater has become a dreadful health hazard to millions of people across the globe. Arsenic has been documented as a top most potent human carcinogen by Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. There have been a number of schools of opinions regarding the underlying mechanism of arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, but the theory of oxidative stress generated by arsenic has gained much importance. Imbalance in the cellular redox state and its associated complications have been closely associated with nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that activates the antioxidant responsive element and electrophilic responsive element, thereby upregulating the expression of a variety of downstream genes. This review has been framed on the lines of differential molecular responses of Nrf2 on arsenic exposure as well as the chemopreventive strategy which may be improvised to regulate Nrf2 in order to combat arsenic-induced oxidative stress and its long-term carcinogenic effect.


Arsenic Carcinogenicity Chemoprevention Nrf2 Oxidative stress 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Receptor Biology and Tumor MetastasisChittaranjan National Cancer InstituteKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Clinical and Translational ResearchChittaranjan National Cancer InstituteKolkataIndia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of PharmacyAmerican University of Health SciencesSignal HillUSA

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