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Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 86, Issue 11, pp 1649–1665 | Cite as

Oxidative stress in apoptosis and cancer: an update

  • José M. Matés
  • Juan A. Segura
  • Francisco J. Alonso
  • Javier Márquez
Review Article

Abstract

The oxygen paradox tells us that oxygen is both necessary for aerobic life and toxic to all life forms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) touch every biological and medical discipline, especially those involving proliferative status, supporting the idea that active oxygen may be increased in tumor cells. In fact, metabolism of oxygen and the resulting toxic byproducts can cause cancer and death. Efforts to counteract the damage caused by ROS are gaining acceptance as a basis for novel therapeutic approaches, and the field of prevention of cancer is experiencing an upsurge of interest in medically useful antioxidants. Apoptosis is an important means of regulating cell numbers in the developing cell system, but it is so important that it must be controlled. Normal cell death in homeostasis of multicellular organisms is mediated through tightly regulated apoptotic pathways that involve oxidative stress regulation. Defective signaling through these pathways can contribute to both unbalance in apoptosis and development of cancer. Finally, in this review, we discuss new knowledge about recent tools that provide powerful antioxidant strategies, and designing methods to deliver to target cells, in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

Keywords

Antioxidants DNA damage p53 Reactive oxygen species Signaling Superoxide dismutase 

Abbreviations

Ad-SOD

Adenoviral vector expressing SOD

Apaf-1

Apoptosis-activating factor

AP-1

Activator protein-1

ASK1

Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1

BCNU

1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosurea

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CAT

Catalase

CREBP

cAMP-responsive element binding protein

EC-SOD

Extracellular superoxide dismutase

EH

Epoxide hydrolase

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

EUK

Eukarion

GPX

Glutathione peroxidase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GSH

Glutathione

GSSG

Oxidized glutathione

GST

Glutathione S-transferase

GT

Glucuronosyl transferase

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HUVEC

Human umbilical vein endothelial cell

JNK

c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MDM

Murine double minute

NFκB

Necrosis factor kappa B

NQO

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase

oxLDL

Oxidized low-density lipoproteins

O2·−

Superoxide anion radical

PCNA

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen

PTD

Small protein domains

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SAPK

Stress-activated protein kinases

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

Notes

Acknowledgments

Ministerio de Educación of Spain, PHB2010-0014-PC; Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología of Spain, SAF2010-17573; Junta de Andalucía, Proyectos de Investigación de Excelencia, Convocatoria 2010, CVI-6656, Spain; grant RD06/1012 of the RTA RETICS network from the Spanish Health Institute Carlos III; and Consejería de Salud, Junta de Andalucía, PI-0825-2010, Spain.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • José M. Matés
    • 1
  • Juan A. Segura
    • 1
  • Francisco J. Alonso
    • 1
  • Javier Márquez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de MálagaMálagaSpain

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