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Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 86, Issue 12, pp 1809–1827 | Cite as

Toxicity of pristine versus functionalized fullerenes: mechanisms of cell damage and the role of oxidative stress

  • Andreja TrpkovicEmail author
  • Biljana Todorovic-Markovic
  • Vladimir TrajkovicEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

The fullerene C60, due to the physicochemical properties of its spherical cage-like molecule build exclusively from carbon atoms, is able to both scavenge and generate reactive oxygen species. While this unique dual property could be exploited in biomedicine, the low water solubility of C60 hampers the investigation of its behavior in biological systems. The C60 can be brought into water by solvent extraction, by complexation with surfactants/polymers, or by long-term stirring, yielding pristine (unmodified) fullerene suspensions. On the other hand, a modification of the C60 core by the attachment of various functional groups results in the formation of water-soluble fullerene derivatives. Assessment of toxicity associated with C60 preparations is of pivotal importance for their biomedical application as cytoprotective (antioxidant), cytotoxic (anticancer), or drug delivery agents. Moreover, the widespread industrial utilization of fullerenes may also have implications for human health. However, the alterations in physicochemical properties imposed by the utilization of different methods for C60 solubilization profoundly influence toxicological effects of fullerene preparations, thus making the analysis of their potential therapeutic and environmental toxicity difficult. This review provides a comprehensive evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of fullerenes, focusing on the comparison between pristine and derivatized C60 preparations and the mechanisms of their toxicity to mammalian cells and tissues.

Keywords

Fullerenes Cytotoxicity Genotoxicity Oxidative stress In vitro In vivo 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (grants number 41025 and 172003).

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© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.School of Medicine, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, University of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

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