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Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 84, Issue 12, pp 919–938 | Cite as

Selenium: a double-edged sword for defense and offence in cancer

  • Jela BrozmanováEmail author
  • Dominika Mániková
  • Viera Vlčková
  • Miroslav Chovanec
Review Article

Abstract

Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary component for animals including humans and is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. Although the mode of anticancer action of Se is not fully understood yet, several mechanisms, such as antioxidant protection by selenoenzymes, specific inhibition of tumor cell growth by Se metabolites, modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, and effect on DNA repair have all been proposed. Despite the unsupported results of the last SELECT trial, the cancer-preventing activity of Se was demonstrated in majority of the epidemiological studies. Moreover, recent studies suggest that Se has a potential to be used not only in cancer prevention but also in cancer treatment where in combination with other anticancer drugs or radiation, it can increase efficacy of cancer therapy. In combating cancer cells, Se acts as pro-oxidant rather than antioxidant, inducing apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress. Thus, the inorganic Se compound, sodium selenite (SeL), due to its prooxidant character, represents a promising alternative for cancer therapy. However, this Se compound is highly toxic compared to organic Se forms. Thus, the unregulated intake of dietary or pharmacological Se supplements mainly in the form of SeL has a potential to expose the body tissues to the toxic levels of Se with subsequent negative consequences on DNA integrity. Hence, due to a broad interest to exploit the positive effects of Se on human health and cancer therapy, studies investigating the negative effects such as toxicity and DNA damage induction resulting from high Se intake are also highly required. Here, we review a role of Se in cancer prevention and cancer therapy, as well as mechanisms underlying Se-induced toxicity and DNA injury. Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven a powerful tool for addressing some important questions regarding Se biology, a part of this review is devoted to this model system.

Keywords

Selenium Cancer Mechanisms of cancer prevention Cancer treatment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the VEGA Grant Agency of the Slovak Republic (grants no. 2/6082/26 and 1/3243/06).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jela Brozmanová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dominika Mániková
    • 1
  • Viera Vlčková
    • 2
  • Miroslav Chovanec
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular GeneticsCancer Research InstituteBratislavaSlovak Republic
  2. 2.Department of Genetics, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovak Republic

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