Prepubertal exposure to commercial formulation of the herbicide glyphosate alters testosterone levels and testicular morphology
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Glyphosate is a herbicide widely used to kill weeds both in agricultural and non-agricultural landscapes. Its reproductive toxicity is related to the inhibition of a StAR protein and an aromatase enzyme, which causes an in vitro reduction in testosterone and estradiol synthesis. Studies in vivo about this herbicide effects in prepubertal Wistar rats reproductive development were not performed at this moment. Evaluations included the progression of puberty, body development, the hormonal production of testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone, and the morphology of the testis. Results showed that the herbicide (1) significantly changed the progression of puberty in a dose-dependent manner; (2) reduced the testosterone production, in semineferous tubules’ morphology, decreased significantly the epithelium height (P < 0.001; control = 85.8 ± 2.8 μm; 5 mg/kg = 71.9 ± 5.3 μm; 50 mg/kg = 69.1 ± 1.7 μm; 250 mg/kg = 65.2 ± 1.3 μm) and increased the luminal diameter (P < 0.01; control = 94.0 ± 5.7 μm; 5 mg/kg = 116.6 ± 6.6 μm; 50 mg/kg = 114.3 ± 3.1 μm; 250 mg/kg = 130.3 ± 4.8 μm); (4) no difference in tubular diameter was observed; and (5) relative to the controls, no differences in serum corticosterone or estradiol levels were detected, but the concentrations of testosterone serum were lower in all treated groups (P < 0.001; control = 154.5 ± 12.9 ng/dL; 5 mg/kg = 108.6 ± 19.6 ng/dL; 50 mg/dL = 84.5 ± 12.2 ng/dL; 250 mg/kg = 76.9 ± 14.2 ng/dL). These results suggest that commercial formulation of glyphosate is a potent endocrine disruptor in vivo, causing disturbances in the reproductive development of rats when the exposure was performed during the puberty period.