Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 83, Issue 8, pp 763–768 | Cite as

Inflammation does not precede or accompany the induction of preneoplastic lesions in the colon of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-fed rats

  • Dana Kühnel
  • Felicitas Taugner
  • Bettina Scholtka
  • Pablo SteinbergEmail author
Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity


Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are formed in meat cooked at high temperatures for a long time or over an open flame. In this context 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundant HCA in cooked meat, has been suggested to be involved in colon and prostate carcinogenesis. In the latter case it has been reported that: (1) roughly 50% of Fischer F344 male rats treated with PhIP develop carcinomas in the ventral prostate lobe at 1 year of age; (2) inflammation precedes prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in PhIP-fed rats; (3) inflammation specifically occurs in the ventral prostate lobe of PhIP-fed rats. To test whether PhIP by itself leads to inflammation in the colon and whether a human-relevant concentration of PhIP is able to induce preneoplastic lesions in the colon, male F344 rats were fed 0.1 or 100 ppm PhIP for up to 10 months and thereafter the colon tissue was analyzed histochemically. In none of the experimental groups signs of acute or chronic colonic inflammation were observed. 0.1 ppm PhIP leads to the development of hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions in the colon of single animals, but the incidence of these lesions does not reach a statistical significance. In contrast, in rats fed 100 ppm PhIP for 10 months hyperplastic and dysplastic colonic lesions were induced in a statistically significant number of animals. It is concluded that: (1) the induction of preneoplastic lesions in rat colon by PhIP is not preceded or accompanied by an inflammatory process; (2) a human-relevant concentration of PhIP alone is not sufficient to initiate colon carcinogenesis in rats.


Colorectal cancer Heterocyclic aromatic amines Inflammation 



We thank Mrs. Ingrid Zschaler for her excellent technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dana Kühnel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Felicitas Taugner
    • 3
  • Bettina Scholtka
    • 1
  • Pablo Steinberg
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Chair of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute of Nutritional ScienceUniversity of PotsdamNuthetalGermany
  2. 2.Department of Cell ToxicologyHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZLeipzigGermany
  3. 3.Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental MedicineHannoverGermany
  4. 4.Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical ChemistryUniversity of Veterinary Medicine HannoverHannoverGermany

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