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Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 81, Issue 7, pp 495–504 | Cite as

Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with oxidative stress, redox state unbalance, impairment of energetic metabolism and apoptosis in rat kidney mitochondria

  • N. A. G. Santos
  • C. S. Catão
  • N. M. Martins
  • C. Curti
  • M. L. P. Bianchi
  • A. C. SantosEmail author
Organ Toxicity and Mechanisms

Abstract

The clinical use of cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II) is highly limited by its nephrotoxicity. The precise mechanisms involved in cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in kidney have not been completely clarified. Therefore, we investigated in vivo the effects of cisplatin on mitochondrial bioenergetics, redox state, and oxidative stress as well as the occurrence of cell death by apoptosis in cisplatin-treated rat kidney. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 200–220 g were divided into two groups. The control group (n = 8) was treated only with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of saline solution (1 ml per 100 g body weight), and the cisplatin group (n = 8) was given a single injection of cisplatin (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). Animals were sacrificed 72 h after the treatment. The cisplatin group presented acute renal failure characterized by increased plasmatic creatinine and urea levels. Mitochondrial dysfunction was evidenced by the decline in membrane electrochemical potential and the substantial decrease in mitochondrial calcium uptake. The mitochondrial antioxidant defense system was depleted, as shown by decreased GSH and NADPH levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased GSSG level. Moreover, cisplatin induced oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, including cardiolipin, and oxidation of mitocondrial proteins, as demonstrated by the significant decrease of sulfhydryl protein concentrations and increased levels of carbonylated proteins. Additionally, aconitase activity, which is essential for mitochondrial function, was also found to be lower in the cisplatin group. Renal cell death via apoptosis was evidenced by the increased caspase-3 activity. Results show the central role of mitochondria and the intensification of apoptosis in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure, highlighting a number of steps that might be targeted to minimize cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords

Cisplatin Mitochondria Nephrotoxicity Reactive oxygen species (ROS) 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. A. G. Santos
    • 1
  • C. S. Catão
    • 1
  • N. M. Martins
    • 1
  • C. Curti
    • 2
  • M. L. P. Bianchi
    • 1
  • A. C. Santos
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão PretoUSPRibeirão PretoBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão PretoUSPRibeirão PretoBrazil

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