Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses of psychrophilic isolates belonging to the Arthrobacter subgroup and description of Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus, sp. nov.
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During our work on psychrophilic microorganisms we obtained a large collection of new isolates. In order to identify six of these, we examined their growth properties, cell wall compositions, and their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that all of the isolates are gram-positive, aerobic, contain lysine in their cell walls, and belong to the high mol% G+C Arthrobacter subgroup. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes grouped five isolates obtained from a small geographical region into a monophyletic clade. Isolate B7 had a 16S rRNA sequence that was 94.3% similar to that of Arthrobacter polychromogenes and 94.4% similar to that of Arthrobacter oxydans. Primary characteristics that distinguish isolate B7 from the Arthrobacter type strain (Arthrobacter globiformis) and A. polychromogenes include lack of growth at 37°C, growth at 0–5°C, the ability to use lactose as a sole carbon source, and the absence of blue pigments. Because of these differences, isolate B7 was chosen as a type strain representing a new Arthrobacter species, Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus. The sixth isolate, LV7, differed from the other five because it did not have the rod/ coccus morphological cycle and was most closely related to Arthrobacter agilis.
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