Comparison of clinical and sewage isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from two long-term care facilities in Zagreb; mechanisms and routes of spread
In the previous studies OXA-23-like and OXA-24-like β-lactamase were reported among Acinetobacter baumannii in both hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Croatia. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical and sewage A. baumannii isolates from two nursing homes in Zagreb, with regard to antibiotic susceptibility and resistance mechanisms, to determine the route of spread of carbapenem-resistant isolates. Nine clinical isolates were collected from February to May 2017 whereas in April 2017, ten A. baumannii isolates were collected from sewage of two nursing homes in Zagreb. Antibiotics susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution method. The presence of carbapenemase and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) encoding genes was explored by PCR. Conjugation and transformation experiments were performed as previously described. Genotyping was performed by SG determination, PFGE and MLST. Seven clinical isolates were positive for blaOXA24-like whereas two clinical and environmental carbapenem-resistant isolates, respectively, were found to possess blaOXA-23-like genes. Attempts to transfer imipenem resistance were unsuccessful indicating chromosomal location of blaOXA-23 gene. All carbapenem-resistant isolates belonged to SG- 1 (IC-2) whereas the rest of the isolates susceptible to carbapenems were allocated to SG- 2 (IC-1). PFGE analysis revealed low degree of genetic variability within both IC- I and IC- II. MLST corroborated that two environmental OXA-23 isolates belong to the ST-195. This study showed dissemination of OXA-23 producing A. baumannii from the nursing home into the urban sewage. Disinfection of nursing home sewage should be recommended in order to prevent the spread of resistance genes into the community sewage.
KeywordsCarbapenem OXA-23 Resistance Long-term care facility Croatia
This work has been supported in a part by the Croatian Science Foundation (project no. IP-2014-09-5656).
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