Pantocin A, a peptide-derived antibiotic involved in biological control by plant-associated Pantoea species

  • Theo H. M. SmitsEmail author
  • Brion Duffy
  • Jochen Blom
  • Carol A. Ishimaru
  • Virginia O. Stockwell


The genus Pantoea contains a broad range of plant-associated bacteria, including some economically important plant pathogens as well as some beneficial members effective as biological control agents of plant pathogens. The most well-characterized representatives of biological control agents from this genus generally produce one or more antimicrobial compounds adding to biocontrol efficacy. Some Pantoea species evaluated as biocontrol agents for fire blight disease of apple and pear produce a histidine-reversible antibiotic. Three commonly studied histidine-reversible antibiotics produced by Pantoea spp. are herbicolin O, MccEh252, and pantocin A. Pantocin A is a novel ribosomally encoded and post-translationally modified peptide natural product. Here, we review the current knowledge on the chemistry, genetics, biosynthesis, and incidence and environmental relevance of pantocin A and related histidine-reversible antibiotics produced by Pantoea.


Pantoea agglomerans Pantoea vagans Herbicolin O MccEh252 Histidine-reversible Biocontrol Fire blight Erwinia amylovora 



T.H.M.S. was supported by the ZHAW School of Life Sciences and Facility Management. V.O.S. was supported in part by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service and the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program Grant No. 2012-67013-19392 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Genomics and Systems Biology Research Group, Institute for Natural Resource SciencesZürich University of Applied Sciences ZHAWWädenswilSwitzerland
  2. 2.Bioinformatics and Systems BiologyJustus-Liebig-UniversitätGiessenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  4. 4.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Crops Research UnitCorvallisUSA

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