The peculiar physiological responses of Rhizoctonia solani under the antagonistic interaction coupled by a novel antifungalmycin N2 from Streptomyces sp. N2

  • Yong Yang
  • Zhi-ming Wu
  • Kun-tai LiEmail author
Original Paper


A novel antifungalmycin N2 (3-methyl-3,5-amino-4-vinyl-2-pyrone, C6H7O2N) was previously discovered from Streptomyces sp. N2, which exerted a broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic fungi. To provide comprehensive insights into the antagonistic mechanisms and biocontrol efficacy of antifungalmycin N2, the present work investigated the physiological responses of Rhizoctonia solani under interaction with antifungalmycin N2. First, the mycelial growth of R. solani was significantly inhibited by antifungalmycin N2 during liquid shake-flask culture. Morphological observations showed that the morphogenesis of R. solani was influenced by antifungalmycin N2, in which the hyphae became severely shriveled and flattened, irregularly folded and branched. Additionally, an obvious accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in R. solani hyphae, indicating oxidative stress induced by antifungalmycin N2. Further results showed that chitinase activity and its hydrolytic N-acetylglucosamine were significantly accelerated by antifungalmycin N2, demonstrating the cell wall of R. solani was damaged. Interestingly, the enzymatic antioxidant activities of R. solani were significantly induced in response to a relatively low concentration of antifungalmycin N2 (1.44–5.77 µg/mL). However, all antioxidant enzymes became highly inactive when the antifungalmycin N2 was increased to 11.53 µg/mL, suggesting that the enzymatic antioxidant system in R. solani was probably collapsed by the oxidative stress beyond its acceptance scope. In conclusion, antifungalmycin N2 exerted its antagonistic activity by inducing both cell wall degradation and oxidative stress in R. solani, thus leading to fungal morphogenesis and autolysis. Meanwhile, R. solani could induce and activate its antioxidant enzymes as a defence response to the oxidative stress caused by antifungalmycin N2.


Antifungalmycin N2 Rhizoctonia solani Physiological response Chitinase Enzymatic antioxidant 



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 31760546), and the Training Program for Young Scientists of Jiangxi Provincial Department of Science and Technology (20142BCB23025).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory for the Development and Utilization of Agricultural Microbial ResourcesJiangxi Agricultural UniversityNanchangChina

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