Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 200, Issue 8, pp 1191–1203 | Cite as

Antioxidant activity and induction of mechanisms of resistance to stresses related to the inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense

  • Josiane Fukami
  • Francisco Javier Ollero
  • Clara de la Osa
  • Rocio Valderrama-Fernández
  • Marco Antonio Nogueira
  • Manuel Megías
  • Mariangela HungriaEmail author
Original Paper


We investigated the effects of Azospirillum brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 in the induction of mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced system resistance (ISR) on maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Under normal growth conditions, the treatments consisted of the standard inoculation of cells at sowing, and leaf spray of cells or their metabolites at the V2.5 growth stage; under saline stress (170 mM NaCl), the treatment consisted of standard single and co-inoculation of A. brasilense and Rhizobium tropici. The main compounds in the Azospirillum metabolites were identified as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA). Under normal conditions, A. brasilense cells applied at sowing or by leaf spray increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in leaves, and of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in roots; however, interestingly, in general the highest activities were observed by leaf spray of metabolites. Under normal conditions, the highest levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) were achieved in leaves by leaf spray of metabolites, of SA in roots by leaf spray of cells, and of JA in roots by standard inoculation and leaf spray of metabolites. Under saline stress, plant protection occurred via SA and abscisic acid (ABA), but not JA. In general, inoculation resulted in further increases in SA in leaves and roots, and ABA in leaves. We hypothesize that A. brasilense confers protection to maize plants by simultaneous induction of JA and SA pathways, and, under saline stressing conditions, by SA and ABA pathways.


Induced systemic resistance Systemic acquired resistance Jasmonic acid Salicylic acid AIA ABA Zea maysAntioxidant enzymes 



Funded by Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO, AGL2016-77163-R), INCT-Plant-Growth Promoting Microorganisms for Agricultural Sustainability and Environmental Responsibility (CNPq 465133/2014-2, Fundação Araucária-STI, CAPES), and Embrapa ( J. Fukami acknowledges a PhD fellowship and a sandwich fellowship to Spain from CAPES; M. Hungria is also a fellow from CNPq.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Embrapa SojaLondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and BiotechnologyUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de BiologíaUniversidad de SevillaSevilleSpain
  4. 4.Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de BiologíaUniversidad de SevillaSevilleSpain
  5. 5.Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de QuímicaUniversidad de SevillaSevilleSpain

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