Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 200, Issue 4, pp 589–601 | Cite as

Molecular diversity of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus bacteria, symbionts of Heterorhabditis and Steinernema nematodes retrieved from soil in Benin

  • Anique Godjo
  • Leonard Afouda
  • Hugues Baimey
  • Wilfrida Decraemer
  • Anne WillemsEmail author
Original Paper


The diversity of 43 bacterial strains isolated from Beninese entomopathogenic nematodes was investigated molecularly by analyzing the 16S rRNA, recA, and gyrB genes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, 15 bacterial strains were identified as Xenorhabdus sp., 27 strains as Photorhabdus sp., and one as Serratia sp. The Xenorhabdus strains were isolated from Steinernema nematodes and identified as Xenorhabdus indica based on 16S rRNA gene and concatenated recA and gyrB sequence analysis. However, analysis of 16S rRNA and concatenated recA and gyrB gene sequences of the Photorhabdus strains, all isolated from Heterorhabditis nematodes, resulted in two separate sub-clusters (A) and (B) within the Photorhabdus luminescens group, distinct from the existing subspecies. They share low sequence similarities with nearest phylogenetic neighbors Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. luminescens HbT, Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis HG29T, and Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. noenieputensis AM7T.


GyrB RecA Entomopathogenic nematodes Symbiotic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens Xenorhabdus indica 



This research was supported by the Special Research Fund (BOF) of Ghent University (Belgium), grant 01W00713. The authors would like to thank Pia Clercx and Andy Vierstraete for the excellent technical assistance and Nancy de Sutter for maintaining the nematode cultures at Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

203_2017_1470_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (656 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 656 KB)
203_2017_1470_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (409 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 408 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Crop Production, Faculty of AgronomyUniversity of ParakouParakouBenin
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

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