Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 199, Issue 7, pp 979–989 | Cite as

Strains of Photorhabdus spp. associated with polish Heterorhabditis isolates: their molecular and phenotypic characterization and symbiont exchange

  • Waldemar Kazimierczak
  • Henryk Skrzypek
  • Ewa Sajnaga
  • Marcin Skowronek
  • Adam Waśko
  • Anna Kreft
Original Paper


The relationships between six bacterial symbionts of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Heterorhabditis megidis from Poland to species and subspecies of the genus Photorhabdus were evaluated. This study was based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data of five genes: 16S rRNA, gyrB, recA, gltX, and dnaN. The bacteria were also characterized phenotypically by biochemical and physiological tests. Our results have revealed that the Photorhabdus strains isolated from H. megidis belong to P. temperata, subsp. temperata and subsp. cinerea. Isolates from H. bacteriophora represent P. luminescens subs. kayaii and P. temperata subs. cinerea. This study for the first time provides evidence for H. bacteriophora and P. temperata subsp. cinerea symbiotic association. In addition, we tested whether the microsymbionts of the Polish H. bacteriophora and H. megidis isolates support the development of non-native nematode host population and colonization of their infective juveniles. It has been shown that the studied Photorhabdus strains can readily swap their nematode host, both at intra- and interspecies level. It supports the hypothesis of different symbiotic associations in the HeterorhabditisPhotorhabdus lineage.


Photorhabdus Heterorhabditis Entomopathogenic nematodes Symbiosis Phylogeny Symbiont exchange 


IJ (s)

Infective juvenile (s)

EPN (s)

Entomopathogenic nematode (s)


Weight per volume


Luria–Bertani agar


Luria–Bertani broth


Nutrient agar



This work was supported by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education grant for statutory activity.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

203_2017_1368_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1141 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Biocontrol, Application and Production of EPN, Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Interdisciplinary ResearchJohn Paul II Catholic University of LublinLublinPoland
  2. 2.Laboratory of Ultrastructure and Electron Microscopy, Department of Biotechnology and Environmental SciencesJohn Paul II Catholic University of LublinLublinPoland
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and Science of Food CommoditiesUniversity of Life Sciences in LublinLublinPoland

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