Genetic characterization of canine parvovirus type 2 subtypes in Maputo, Mozambique
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) comprises three antigenic subtypes (2a, 2b and 2c) that have been reported in many countries. These subtypes cause serious disease in dogs with characteristic gastroenteritis signs. Little information has been documented in Africa about the genetic characterization of CPV-2. The aim of this study was to detect and to characterize the CPV-2 subtypes circulating in dogs admitted to Veterinary Clinics from two cities of Mozambique, Maputo and Matola, in 2010. A total of 40 field fecal samples were collected and tested for CPV-2 by polymerase chain reaction assay. The partial length VP2 gene of the positive samples were sequenced and genetically analyzed. Twenty-six (65%) fecal samples were positive for CPV-2. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was also performed from positive samples and did not reveal the presence of CPV-2c subtype. The results of the sequencing revealed the presence of CPV-2a (n = 9) and CPV-2b (n = 17). No CPV-2 and CPV-2c were detected. Sequence analysis comparison showed nucleotide identities of 99.6–100% among our CPV-2 isolates. Amino acid analysis showed predicted amino acid changes. Phylogenetically, all of the CPV-2a strains isolated formed a cluster together with South African and Nigerian isolates. Most of Mozambican CPV-2b isolates also tended to cluster together with South African isolates; however, four were more closely related to French strain and one isolates to the American strain. The present study was the first to characterize the CPV-2 circulating in the Mozambican dog population.
KeywordsCanine parvovirus Characterization Dog Mozambique VP2-encoding gene
The authors are thankful to all management and staff of the veterinary clinics which provided the fecal samples for testing. We also thank the Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar for their collaboration and support in this work.
Compliance with ethical standard
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
- Chou SJ, Lin HT, Wu JT et al (2013) Genotyping of canine parvovirus type 2 VP2 gene in Southern Taiwan in 2011. Taiwan Vet J 39(2):81–92Google Scholar
- Melchior B, Oficiano O (2006) Laboratory diagnosis of canine parvovirus. X’s scientific conference. Faculty of Veterinary. University Eduardo Mondlane, p 15Google Scholar
- Montousa CS 2006 Parvovirus canine (CPV-2): study and gastroenteritis of diagnosis hemorrhagic in Duque de Caxias City. Castelo Branco University, Rio de Janeiro, Thesis to graduate, p 63Google Scholar
- Murphy FA, Gibbs EPJ, Horzinek MC et al (1999) Veterinary virology, 3rd Academic, California Academic, p 629Google Scholar
- Nandi S, Chidri S, Kamur M (2009) Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a canine parvovirus isolate in India. Vet Med 54(10):483–490Google Scholar
- Nandi S, Kamur M, Mohapatra TK et al (2013) Emergence of canine parvovirus-2 variants and its impact on vaccination. World Appl Sci J 23:1366–1376Google Scholar
- Nelson R, Couto CG (2006) Distúrbios do trato intestinal. Medicina interna de pequenos animais, 3rd. Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara Koogan, pp 417–447Google Scholar
- Pereira AL (2005) Título de anticorpos contra o vírus da parvovirose em cães vacinados na área urbana em estabelecimentos do Município de Viçosa/Mg-Tese para obtenção do título de Magister Scientiae-Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas GeraisGoogle Scholar
- Ramilo DWR (2008) Subtipificação do parvovírus canino e felino. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Lisboa, Dissertação de MestradoGoogle Scholar
- Schwers A, Pastoret PP, Burtonboy G et al (1979) Frequence en Belgique de l’infection a parvovirus chez le chien, avant et apres l’observation des premiers cas cliniques. Ann Med Vét 123:561–566Google Scholar
- Souza JM, Zappa V (2008) Canine parvovirus. J Sci Vet Med 6(11):4Google Scholar
- Steinel A, Venter EH, Van Vuuren M et al (1998) Antigenic and genetic analysis of canine parvoviruses in Southern Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet 65(4):239–242Google Scholar
- Yilmaz Z, Pratelli A, Torun S (2005) Distribution of antigen types of canine parvovirus type 2 in dogs with hemorrhagic enteritis in Turkey. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 26:1073–1076Google Scholar