Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 199, Issue 2, pp 347–355 | Cite as

Antibacterial activity and chemical characteristics of several Western Australian honeys compared to manuka honey and pasture honey

  • Niloufar Roshan
  • Thomas Rippers
  • Cornelia Locher
  • Katherine A. HammerEmail author
Original Paper


The physicochemical parameters and antibacterial activity of 10 Western Australian (WA) and two comparator honeys were determined. Honeys showed a pH range of 4.0–4.7, colour range of 41.3–470.7 mAU, methylglyoxal levels ranging from 82.2 to 325.9 mg kg−1 and hydrogen peroxide levels after 2 h of 22.7–295.5 µM. Antibacterial activity was assessed by the disc diffusion assay, phenol equivalence assay, determination of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations and a time-kill assay. Activity was shown for all honeys by one or more method, however, activity varied according to which assay was used. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for WA honeys against 10 organisms ranged from 4.0 to >32.0% (w/v). Removal of hydrogen peroxide activity by catalase resulted in decreased activity for several honeys. Overall, the data showed that honeys in addition to those derived from Leptospermum spp. have antimicrobial activity and should not be overlooked as potential sources of clinically useful honey.


Apitherapy Methylglyoxal Eucalyptus Banksia Jarrah Marri 



The authors thank Fewster’s farm in Western Australia and Capilano Company, Bayswater, WA, for providing honeys for the study. This work was not supported by a research grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niloufar Roshan
    • 1
  • Thomas Rippers
    • 2
  • Cornelia Locher
    • 2
  • Katherine A. Hammer
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (M504)The University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  2. 2.School of Medicine and Pharmacology (M315)The University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

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