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Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 197, Issue 4, pp 503–512 | Cite as

PRRSV receptors and their roles in virus infection

  • Chongxu Shi
  • Yali Liu
  • Yaozhong Ding
  • Yongguang Zhang
  • Jie ZhangEmail author
Mini-Review

Abstract

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a restricted cell tropism and prefers to invade well-differentiated cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, such as pulmonary alveolar macrophages and African green monkey kidney cell line MA-104 and its derivatives, such as Marc-145, Vero and CL-2621. PRRSV infection of the host cells actually is a receptor-mediated endocytosis and replication process. The presence and absence of the cellular receptors decide whether the cell lines are permissive or non-permissive to PRRSV infection. Several PRRSV non-permissive cell lines, such as BHK-21, PK-15 and CHO-K1, have been shown to become sensitive to the virus infection upon expression of the recombinant receptor proteins. Up to now, heparin sulfate, sialoadhesin, CD163, CD151 and vimentin have been identified as the important PRRSV receptors via their involvement in virus attachment, internalization or uncoating. Each receptor is characterized by the distribution in different cells, the function in virus different infection stages and the interaction model with the viral proteins or genes. Joint forces of the receptors recently attract attentions due to the specific function. PRRSV receptors have become the targets for designing the new anti-viral reagents or the recombinant cell lines used for isolating the viruses or developing more effective vaccines due to their more conserved sequences compared with the genetic variation of the virus. In this paper, the role of PRRSV receptors and the molecular mechanism of the interaction between the virus and the receptors are reviewed.

Keywords

PRRSV Receptors Heparin sulfate Sialoadhesin CD163 CD151 Vimentin 

Abbreviations

PRRS

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

PRRSV

PRRS virus

ORF

Open reading frame

PAM

Porcine alveolar macrophage

HS

Heparin sulfate

Sn

Sialoadhesin

SRCR

Scavenger receptor cystein-rich

TAP

Tetradecanoy phorbol acetate

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

mAb

Monoclonal antibody

HSPG

HS-proteoglycan

UTR

Untranslated region

CPE

Cytopathic effect

IF

Intermediate filament

LV

Lelystad strain

GAG

Glycosaminoglycan

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

GPI

Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by grants International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (2012DFG31890) and National Natural Science foundation of China (No. 31072143).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chongxu Shi
    • 1
  • Yali Liu
    • 1
  • Yaozhong Ding
    • 1
  • Yongguang Zhang
    • 1
  • Jie Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Food and Mouth Diseases Reference LaboratoryLanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, CAASLanzhouChina

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