Regulation of the expression of the whole genome of Ustilago maydis by a MAPK pathway
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The operation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways is one of the most important mechanisms for the transfer of extracellular information into the cell. These pathways are highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, MAPK pathways are involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as metabolism, homeostasis, pathogenesis and cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Considering the importance of pathways, in the present work we proceeded to identify all the genes that are regulated by the signal transduction pathway involved in mating, pathogenesis and morphogenesis of Ustilago maydis. Accordingly we made a comparison between the transcriptomes from a wild-type strain and an Ubc2 mutant affected in the interacting protein of this pathway by use of microarrays. By this methodology, we identified 939 genes regulated directly or indirectly by the MAPK pathway. Of them, 432 were positively, and 507 were negatively found regulated. By functional grouping, genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinases, transcription factors, proteins involved in signal transduction, in synthesis of wall and cell membrane, and involved in dimorphism were identified as differentially regulated. These data reveal the importance of these global studies, and the large (and unsuspected) number of functions of the fungus under the control of this MAPK, providing clues to the possible mechanisms involved.
KeywordsUstilago maydis MAPK signaling pathway Ubc2 gene Transcriptome Gene regulation
This work was supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Mexico. Thanks are given to Dr. Scott Gold for permission to use his microarray design, and QFB Claudia Geraldine León-Ramirez, IBQ Fernando Emilio Pérez-García, Biol. Mayela Fernanda Salazar-Chávez and M.S. Guillermo Antonio Silva-Martínez for assistance in some analyses. DMS is a doctoral student supported by a fellowship from CONACYT (México). JRH is Emeritus National Professor, México.
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