Characteristics of a phylogenetically ambiguous, arsenic-oxidizing Thiomonas sp., Thiomonas arsenitoxydans strain 3AsT sp. nov
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A moderately acidophilic, facultative chemoautotrophic, As(III)-oxidizing Thiomonas sp. (strain 3AsT) was previously shown, on the basis of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequences, to be closely related to both Tm. perometabolis DSM 18570T and Tm. intermedia DSM 18155T. While it had shared many physiological traits with Tm. intermedia T, a mean DNA–DNA hybridization value (DDHV) of 47.2% confirmed that strain 3AsT was not a strain of Tm. intermedia, though the situation with regard to Tm. perometabolis (DDHV previously determined as 72%) was more ambiguous. A comparative physiological and chemotaxonomic study of strain 3AsT and Tm. perometabolis T was therefore carried out, together with multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of all three bacteria. Differences in fatty acid profiles and utilization of organic substrates supported the view that strain 3AsT and Tm. perometabolis are distinct species, while MLSA showed a closer relationship between strain 3AsT and Tm. intermedia T than between strain 3AsT and Tm. perometabolis T. These apparent contradictory conclusions were explained by differences in genome of these three bacteria, which are known to be highly flexible in Thiomonas spp. A novel species designation Thiomonas arsenitoxydans is proposed for strain 3AsT (DSM 22701T, CIP 110005T), which is nominated as the type strain of this species.
KeywordsThiomonas Thiomonas arsenitoxydans Arsenic DNA–DNA hybridization Multilocus sequence analysis
We warmly acknowledge K. Duquesne (IMM, LCB, Marseille, France), J. Ratouchniak (IMM, LCB, Marseille, France) and A. Yarzábal (Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela) for initiating this work. The authors are grateful to B. Ollivier (IRD, Microbiologie et Biotechnologie des environnements chauds, Marseille) and P. Bauda (Université Paul Verlaine, Metz) for their advices and for helpful discussions. We wish to thank J. Euzéby for his expert advice on bacterial nomenclature. We also thank M. Bauzan (Fermentation plant unit, IMM, Marseille, France) for growing the bacteria in bioreactor, S. Verbarg (DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany) for fatty acid analysis. Part of this work was financed by the EU framework 6 project “BioMine” (N° NM2.ct, 2005.500329). This work was partly performed in the frame of the Groupement de Recherche “Métabolisme de l’Arsenic chez les Procaryotes: de la résistance à la détoxication” (GDR2009-CNRS). DS was supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Education and Research. C.B.-A. is supported by an Action Thématique et Incitative sur Programme (ATIP) of the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). DBJ is grateful to the Royal Society (UK) for the provision of an Industrial Fellowship.
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