Relationship between endoplasmic reticulum- and Golgi-associated calcium homeostasis and 4-NQO-induced DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
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Calcium (Ca2+) is an important ion that is necessary for the activation of different DNA repair mechanisms. However, the mechanism by which DNA repair and Ca2+ homeostasis cooperate remains unclear. We undertook a systems biology approach to verify the relationship between proteins associated with Ca2+ homeostasis and DNA repair for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data indicate that Pmr1p, a Ca2+ transporter of Golgi complex, interacts with Cod1p, which regulates Ca2+ levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and with Rad4p, which is a nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein. This information was used to construct single and double mutants defective for Pmr1p, Cod1p, and Rad4p followed by cytotoxic, cytostatic, and cell cycle arrest analyses after cell exposure to different concentrations of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). The results indicated that cod1Δ, cod1Δrad4Δ, and cod1Δpmr1Δ strains have an elevated sensitivity to 4-NQO when compared to its wild-type (WT) strain. Moreover, both cod1Δpmr1Δ and cod1Δrad4Δ strains have a strong arrest at G2/M phases of cell cycle after 4-NQO treatment, while pmr1Δrad4Δ have a similar sensitivity and cell cycle arrest profile when compared to rad4Δ after 4-NQO exposure. Taken together, our results indicate that deletion in Golgi- and ER-associated Ca2+ transporters affect the repair of 4-NQO-induced DNA damage.
KeywordsCalcium homeostasis DNA repair Saccharomyces cerevisiae 4-NQO Systems biology Unfolded protein response
We thank the Programa de Pós-Graduação da Universidade de Caxias do Sul (PPGBio/UCS-Brazil). This work was supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS) and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES; Programa Nacional de Cooperação Acadêmica, PROCAD 2005; grant number 0306053). Contract/grant sponsor: CNPq, FAPERGS.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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