Detection of a Phage Genome Carrying a Zonula Occludens like Toxin Gene (zot) in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
- 307 Downloads
During a study of the genetic diversity of Stenotrophomonas strains, we found an autonomous replicating DNA molecule in chromosomal DNA preparations of the clinical Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain c5. The entire sequence of 6,907 bp of the isolated DNA molecule was determined, which was called φSMA9. Seven ORFs, which code for proteins with considerable similarity to proteins in databases, were identified in the DNA sequence. The largest ORF shows high sequence similarities to the pI protein of the filamentous phage φLf, which was later shown to be identical to toxin Zot of Vibrio cholerae. Beside the Zot-like protein, six other proteins with similarities to known phage proteins such as a phage replication protein RstA and phage absorption or coat protein are encoded on φSMA9, which indicate that this circular DNA molecule represents the replicative form of a linear phage genome. A PCR-based screening showed that only five from the totally investigated 47 Stenotrophomonas strains of clinical and environmental origin harbor these genes. Altogether, we describe the first genome of a phage for the nosocomial pathogen Stenotrophomonas, which contains a Zot toxin like gene and might be regarded as the first Stenotrophomonas virulence factor.
KeywordsClinical isolates Cluster analysis Phage sequence
The work was supported by a grant of the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Many thanks are to Dr. M. K. Walden, Tufts University, Boston, USA, for helpful discussion. We would like to thank the Sanger Institute and Wellcome Trust for making the S. maltophilia strain 279a genome sequence already available for the public.
- Alonso A, Martinez JL (1997) Multiple resistances in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:140–1142Google Scholar
- Berg G, Marten P, Ballin G (1996) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in the rhizosphere of oilseed rape—occurrence, characterization and interaction with phytopathogenic fungi. Microbiol Res 151:19–27Google Scholar
- Binks PR, Nicklin S, Bruce NC (1995) Degradation of RDX by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1813–1322Google Scholar
- Denton M, Kerr KG (1998) Microbiological and clinical aspects of infections associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Clin Microbiol Rev 11:7–80Google Scholar
- De Abreu Vidipó L, De Andrade Marques E, Puchelle E, Plotkowski MC (2001) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia interaction with human epithelial respiratory cells in vitro. Microbiol Immumol 45:563–569Google Scholar
- Finkmann W, Altendorf K, Stackebrandt E, Lipski A (2000) Characterization of N2O-producing Xanthomonas-like isolates from biofilters as Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens sp. nov., Luteimonas mephitis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Pseudoxanthomonas broegbernensis gen. nov. sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:273–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hagemann M, Schoor A, Jeanjean R, Zuther E, Joset F (1997) The gene stpA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 encodes for the glucosylglycerol-phosphate phosphatase involved in cyanobacterial salt adaptation. J Bacteriol 179:1717–1733Google Scholar
- Ikemoto S, Suzuki K, Kaneko T, Komagata K (1980) Characterization of strains of Pseudomonas maltophilia which do not require methionine. Int J Syst Bacteriol 30:437–447Google Scholar
- Jacobi M, Kaiser D, Berg G, Jung G, Winkelmann G, Bahl H (1996) Maltophilin—a new antifungal compound produced by Stenotrophomomas maltophilia R3089. J Antib 49:1101–1104Google Scholar
- Rademaker JLW, De Bruijn FJ (1992) Characterization and classification of microbes by REP-PCR genomic fingerprinting and computer-assisted pattern analysis. In: Caetano-Anollés G, Gresshoff PM (eds) DNA markers: protocols, applications and overviews. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar