This paper presents the details of exhaustive investigations on a typical Saudi distribution network showing the effectiveness of various control techniques to mitigate the voltage rise issues due to high penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. One of the major goals of Saudi Arabia future economic plans is to expand on renewable energy installations throughout the Kingdom. It is planned to generate 9.5 GW of electric power from renewable energy sources by 2023. Further, energy regulators in the Kingdom have announced policies and regulations govern the integration of small- and large-scale solar PV. However, distributed solar PV systems come with technical challenges, especially during high level of integration including grid stability, voltage rise, flickering, frequency fluctuation, and protection and coordination schemes. One issue is that the voltage profile is expected to change and rise to unacceptable level, especially with high solar PV penetration. Various voltage rise mitigation techniques investigated include active power curtailment, reactive power injection, and also a hybrid combination of these two methods. The paper reports the results of both steady-state and dynamic analyses of the Saudi distribution network at various load levels. The investigations reveal that the hybrid approach is more effective in the voltage rise mitigation.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Renewables 2015 Global Status Report—REN21 (2015). http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/REN12-GSR2015_Onlinebook_low1.pdf. Accessed 10 Nov 2017
Conference of Parties (COP21) (2016). http://www.cop21paris.org/. Accessed 17 Nov 2017
Farid K, Julio RA (2011) Solar PV integration challenges. IEEE Power Energy Mag 9(3):62–71
Phuangpornpitaka N, Tiab S (2013) Opportunities and challenges of integrating renewable energy in smart grid system. Energy Procedia 34:282–290
Task 14: high penetration of PV in local distribution grids. International Energy Agency—Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (2014)
RENEWABLES 2018 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT (2018). www.ren21.net/gsr-2018. Accessed 10 Dec 2018
Garcia DC, Anésio Filho LF, Oliveira MA, Fernandes OA, do Nascimento FA (2009) Voltage unbalance numerical evaluation and minimization. Electr Power Syst Res 79(10):1441–1445
AamirHanif MAC (2009) Dynamic voltage regulation and power export in a distribution system using distributed generation. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. A 10(10):1523–1531
Mogos E, Guillaud X (2004) A voltage regulation system for distributed generation. In: IEEE PES power systems conference and exposition, New York, NY, USA
Tonkoski R, Lopes LAC (2008) Voltage regulation in radial distribution feeders with high penetration of photovoltaic. In: IEEE energy 2030 conference, Atlanta, GA, USA
Trichakis P, Taylor P, Lyons P, Hair R (2008) Predicting the technical impacts of high levels of small-scale embedded generators on low-voltage networks. IET Renew Power Gener 2(4):249–262
Nirmal-Kumar LJ, Nair C (2013) Power quality analysis for building integrated PV and micro wind turbine in New Zealand. Energy Build 58:302–309
Mokhtari GNFZAGG (2013) Overvoltage prevention in LV smart grid using customer resources coordination. Energy Build 61:387–395
Kenneth AP, Folly K (2014) Voltage rise issue with high penetration of grid connected PV. In: The international federation of automatic control, Cape Town, South Africa
Teleke S, Jahanbakhsh F, Katiraei F, Agüero JR (2011) Analysis of interconnection of photovoltaic distributed generation. In: IEEE industry applications society annual meeting, Orlando
Ari G, Baghzouz Y (2011) Impact of high PV penetration on voltage regulation in electrical distribution systems. In: International conference on clean electrical power (ICCEP), Ischia, Italy
Masoum AS, Moses PS, Masoum MAS, Abu-Siada A (2012) Impact of rooftop PV generation on distribution transformer and voltage profile of residential and commercial networks. In: IEEE PES innovative smart grid technologies (ISGT), Washington DC, USA
Liu Y, Bebic J, Kroposki B, Bedout JD, Ren W (2008) Distribution system voltage performance analysis for high-penetration PV. In: IEEE energy 2030 conference, Atlanta, GA, USA
C84.1-2016: American National Standard for Electric Power Systems and Equipment—Voltage Ratings (60 Hz) Standard, National Electrical Manufacturers Association (2016)
Wong J, Lim YS, Tang JH, Morris E (2014) Grid-connected photovoltaic system in Malaysia: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 29:535–545
Karimi M, Mokhlis H, Naidu K, Uddin S, Bakar A (2016) Photovoltaic penetration issues and impacts in distribution network—a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 53:594–605
Xue Y, Divya KC, Griepentrog G, Liviu M, Suresh S, Manjrekar M (2011) Towards next generation photovoltaic inverters. In: IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition, Phoenix, AZ, USA
Mokhtari G, Ghosh A, Nourbakhsh G, Ledwich G (2013) Smart robust resources control in LV network to deal with voltage rise issue. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 4(4):1043–1050
Masters C (2002) Voltage rise: the big issue when connecting embedded generation to long 11 kV overhead lines. Power Eng J 16(1):5–12
Salem M, Talat L, Soliman H (1997) Voltage control by tap-changing transformers for a radial distribution network. In: IEE proceedings-generation, transmission and distribution
Tonkoski R, Lopes LAC, El-Fouly THM (2011) Coordinated active power curtailment of grid connected PV inverters for overvoltage prevention. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 2(2):139–147
Bollen M, Sannino A (2005) Voltage control with inverter-based distributed generation. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 20(1):519–520
Sam W, Carlos G, Johan D (2014) Combined central and local active and reactive power control of PV inverters. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 5(3):776–784
Yang H, Hong L, Pan S, Ernane CAA, Josep G (2017) Review of active and reactive power sharing strategies in hierarchical controlled microgrids. IEEE Trans Power Electron 32(3):2427–2451
Vasquez JC, Mastromauro RA, Guerrero JM, Liserre M (2009) Voltage support provided by a droop-controlled multifunctional inverter. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 56(11):4510–4519
Asma A, Khalid AA, Ashraf K, Nagi B (2018) Control strategies in AC microgrid: a brief review. In: 9th international renewable energy congress (IREC), Hammamet, Tunisia
Chang GW, Chu SY, Wang HL (2007) An Improved backward/forward sweep load flow algorithm for radial distribution systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 22(2):882–884
King Abdullah City for atomic and renewable energy (2018). https://www.energy.gov.sa/. Accessed 7 June 2018
This project was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, under Grant No. G-438-135-562. The authors, therefore, acknowledge with thanks DSR for technical and financial support.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Alquthami, T., Sreerama Kumar, R. & Shaikh, A. Mitigation of voltage rise due to high solar PV penetration in Saudi distribution network. Electr Eng (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00202-020-00920-z
- Distributed solar photovoltaic
- Renewable energy
- Voltage rise
- Distribution system operation