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Electrical Engineering

, Volume 101, Issue 4, pp 1277–1293 | Cite as

Optimal allocation of unified power quality conditioner in the smart distribution grids

  • Ehsan Dehnavi
  • Saeed AfsharniaEmail author
  • Khalil Gholami
Original Paper
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

The optimal operation of current distribution networks has a great importance due to growing electrical demand and significant power losses. In this paper, the optimal allocation of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) in smart grid with responsive loads is investigated as an appropriate solution to reduce power losses. Also, in order to consider different consumption patterns and to predict the demand with the lowest error, different linear and nonlinear models of responsive loads are taken into account. New pricing method in demand response programs (DRPs) is another concept which is developed in the paper by which optimal electricity prices in DRP during peak, off-peak, and valley periods are determined. Moreover, DRPs are prioritized by the Topsis method based on the different Utility’s policies. The final proposed model has been applied on the IEEE 12-bus, IEEE 33-bus, and the practical 94-bus Portuguese RDS distribution system. The results show that the UPQC allocation in the presence of DRPs is a win–win game both for the Utility and for customers.

Keywords

Demand response Smart grid Electricity pricing Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) 

List of symbols

CLi

Proximity to the ideal option

D

Decision matrix

E(.)

Element of the price elasticity matrix

H

Harmonic order

Ijh

jth bus current in the hth harmonic

Ih

Buses injected current for the hth harmonic

IL

Load current

IL(.)

Load current of each bus

ILf

Main components of the load current

Ilk

Current in each branch

ISh

Injected current of the shunt inverter

Is

Current source

NBranch

Number of the network branches

NBus

Number of buses

Nh

Number of harmonic order

Nline

Number of lines

Nload

Number of loads

\( {\text{NSI}}_{a} \)

Network security index

PSe

Active power of series inverter

Psh

Active power of shunt inverter

QSe

Reactive power of series inverter

Qsh

Reactive power of shunt inverter

\( Q_{\text{L}}^{ '} \left( i \right) \)

Reactive power demand for the ith bus

QSei

Injected reactive power of the series inverter in the ith bus

RPLoss

Real loss

SSh

Steady-state capacity of the shunt inverter

Sse

Series inverter’s capacity

T

Total time period

THDL

Total harmonic distortion of the load current

Vse

Voltage of the series inverter

VS

Voltage source

VDL

Appropriate load voltage

VL

Load voltage

VS

Source voltage

Vjh

jth bus voltage in the hth harmonic

Vh

Buses voltage vectors for the hth harmonic

LODF

Line outage distribution factor

Vj1

Magnitude of the jth bus in the main frequency

Vjh

Voltage magnitude of the jth bus in the hth harmonic

\( {\text{VSF}}_{a} \)

Voltage stability index

Yh

Admittance matrix for the hth harmonic

αi

Phase angle before the UPQC allocation

dmax(.)

Maximum demand during T

dmin(.)

Minimum demand during T

d0max(.)

Maximum initial demand during T

d0min(.)

Minimum initial demand during T

dlin(.)

Linear load model

dpot (.)

Potential load model

dexp (.)

Exponential load model

dlog(.)

Logarithmic load model

d0(.)

Initial demand before DRPs implementation

di

Distance between the option i and the negative ideal option

di+

Distance between the option i and the positive ideal option

\( {\text{inc}}\left( {t^{{\prime }} } \right) \)

Incentive at the tth hour

k

Index of the transfer bus for the lkth bus

loss0(.)

Initial loss

loss(.)

Loss after DRPs

l

Index of the receiver bus for the lkth bus

nij

jth element of the matrix D

\( {\text{pen}}\left( {t^{{\prime }} } \right) \)

Penalty at the tth hour

r(lk)

Resistance of the lkth branch

rij

Gain obtained by the option i in the criterion

Z(lk)

Impedance of the lkth branch

ρ(.)

Electricity price after the optimal pricing

ρ0(.)

Initial electricity price

θse

Angle between the source voltage and series inverter

θsh

Angle between the source voltage and shunt inverter

δi

Angle between the load voltage the source voltage in the ith bus

φ

Angle between the voltage and the load current

δ

Angle between the load voltage and the voltage source

Abbreviations

A/S

Ancillary services market

CAP

Capacity market

CPP

Critical peak pricing

CSA

Cuckoo search algorithm

DB

Demand bidding

DE

Differential evolution

DED

Dynamic economic dispatch

DFACTS

Distributed flexible AC transmission system

DGs

Distributed generations

DLC

Direct load control

DPTV

Deviation of peak to valley

DRPs

Demand response programs

DSM

Demand-side management

DSTATCOM

Distribution static compensator

DVR

Dynamic voltage restorer

EDRP

Emergency demand response program

ESSs

Energy storage systems

GLODF

Generalized line outage distribution factor

ICA

Imperialist competitive algorithm

I/C

Interruptible/curtailable service

LF

Load factor

ISO

Independent system operator

MCDM

Multi-criteria decision-making

MIP

Mixed integer programming

MOSOA

Multi-objective seeker-optimization-algorithm

PC

Peak compensate

PDR/PTR

Peak day rebates/peak time rebates

PEM

Price elasticity matrix

PLP

Peak load pricing

PQ

Power quality

PSO

Particle swarm optimization

PTV

Peak to valley

RESs

Renewable energy sources

RTP

Real-time pricing

SG

Smart grid

TCPST

Thyristor-controlled phase shifting transformer

TCSC

Thyristor-controlled series capacitor

THD

Total harmonic distortion

TOU

Time of use

UPQC

Unified power quality conditioner

VGC

Vickrey–Clarke–Groves

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKermanshahIran

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