Study of LCCT converter topology for the use within modular architecture of power supply

  • Michal FrivaldskyEmail author
  • Michal Pridala
  • Pavol Spanik
Original Paper


Following the invention of resonant power converters, lots of new topologies with significant improvements considering increase in efficiency and power density are arising. One of the possibilities how to optimize operational behavior of the converter is modification of its power stage through implementation of resonant components or resonant tanks. Proposed paper describes this methodology, while perspective circuit topology of LCCT resonant DC–DC converter is deeply studied from operational point of view. Proposed converter was experimentally verified based on the knowledge received from theoretical analysis of operational characteristics. Steady-state operational analysis was realized together with dynamic condition investigation (start-up, short circuit), while simulation results are compared to experimental in order to prove validity of the simulation model. Presented analysis of the operation of LCCT converter explores proper behavior related to the redundancy, ensuring its suitability for modular concept of power supply even the efficiency reduction due to higher magnetizing current is evident. Consequently, the considerations are taken for the use of the proposed converter within the modular power supply in parallel input/parallel output configuration covering application of the server’s power supplies. The LCCT converter modules for target parameters of application use have been designed. Modular power supply system was experimentally verified from the efficiency point of view, while various operational scenarios related to interleaved operation are considered. Main focus during experimental measurements of modular operation are related to investigation of the influence on output current and voltage ripple and total system efficiency when one, two, or three modules are operated in various conditions related to power sharing and phase-shift change. Through this approach, the optimal settings of mentioned parameters (number of operating modules, load share, phase shift between modules) are received targeting the best efficiency for individual operational state (flat characteristic of efficiency for any load and low ripple current and/or voltage).


Resonant converter Efficiency Redundancy Reliability Modular power supply 



The authors wish to thank Slovak grant agency APVV for the Project No. 0396-15—Research of perspective high-frequency converter systems with GaN technology. Special thanks belong also to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve the quality of the paper.


  1. 1.
    Hu Z, Qiu Y, Wang L, Liu YF (2014) An interleaved LLC resonant converter operating at constant switching frequency. IEEE Trans Power Electron 29(6):2931–2943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen SM, Haung YH, Chung YY, Hsieh YH, Liang TJ (2013) A novel interleaved LLC resonant converter. In: Industrial electronics society, IECON 2013—39th annual conference of the IEEE, Vienna, pp 293–297Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wu LM, Chen PS (2014) Interleaved three-level LLC resonant converter with fixed-frequency PWM control. In: 2014 IEEE 36th international telecommunications energy conference (INTELEC), Vancouver, BC, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kindl V, Kavalir T, Pechanek R, Skala B, Sobra J (2014) Key construction aspects of resonant wireless low power transfer system. In: ELEKTRO, pp 303–306, 19–20 May 2014Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dobrucky B, Laskody T, Prazenica M, Kascak S (2014) Analysis of VSI and MxC converters fed two-phase induction motor with the same magnitude of fundamental harmonic voltages. IREE 9(5):989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dai W (2015) Modeling and efficiency-based control of interleaved LLC converters for PV DC microgrid. Industry applications society annual meeting, 2015 IEEE, Addison, TX, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang B (2003) Topology investigation for front end dc/dc power conversion for distributed power system. Dissertation Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nayak DK, Reddy SR (2013) Comparison of the synchronous-rectified push–pull converter with LLC DC to DC converter. Arab J Sci Eng 38:913. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Böhm R, Rehtanz C, Franke J (2016) Inverter-based hybrid compensation systems contributing to grid stabilization in medium voltage distribution networks with decentralized, renewable generation. Electric Eng 98:355. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jin T, Smedley K (2006) Multiphase LLC series resonant converter for microprocessor voltage regulation. In: IEEE 41st industry applications conference – IAS, vol 5, 8–12 Oct 2006, pp 2136–2143Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Apeland I, Myhre R (2005) Phase-shifted resonant converter having reduced output ripple. US patent 6970366 B2Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Figge H, Grote T, Froehleke N, Boecker J, Ide P (2008) Paralleling of LLC resonant converter using frequency controlled current balancing. In; IEEE PESC, June 2008, pp 1080–1085Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gong W, Hu S, Shan M, Xu H (2014) Robust current control design of a three phase voltage source converter. J Mod Power Syst Clean Energy 2(1):16–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mingfei W, Lu DDC (2014) Active stabilization methods of electric power systems with constant power loads: a review. J Mod Power Syst Clean Energy 2(3):233–243. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jensen S, Corradini L, Rodriguez M, Maksimovic D (2011) Modelling and digital control of LCLC resonant inverter with varying load. Energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE), pp 3823–3829Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Testa A, De Caro S, Consoli A, Cacciato M (2009) An active current ripple compensation technique in grid connected fuel cell applications. In: 2009 IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition, ECCE 2009, pp 2642–2649Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dobrucký B, Praženica M, Kaščák S (2012) HF link LCTLC resonant converter with LF AC output. In: Proceedings of IECON annual meeting, montreal (CA), art. no. 6388781, pp 447–452, ISBN: 978-146732421-2Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frivaldský M, Dobrucký B, Koscelník J, Praženica M (2014) Multi-resonant LCL2C2 tank. In: IECON 2014: 40th annual conference of the IEEE industrial electronics society, Dallas, TX, U.S.A., 30 Oct–01 Nov, pp 5047–5052, ISBN 978-1-4799-4033-2Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brandstetter P, Chlebis P, Simonik P (2010) Active power filter with soft switching. IREE 5(6):2516–2526Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yang B, Lee FC, Zhang AJ, Huang G (2002) LLC resonant converter for front end dc/dc conversion. IEEE APEC 2:1108–1112Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kchikach M, Lee R, Weinner HF, Zidani Y, Yuan YS, Qian ZM (2004) Study of the resonance phenomenon in switching mode power supply (SMPS). In: 2004 IEEE 35th annual power electronics specialists conference (IEEE Cat. No. 04CH37551), Aachen, Germany, vol 4, pp 3016–3020.
  22. 22.
    Becker DJ, Sonnenberg BJ (2010) 400Vdc power distribution: overcoming the challenges. Intelec 2010, Orlando, FL, pp 1–10.
  23. 23.
    Guo X, Wang H, Lu Z, Wang B (2014) New inverter topology for ground current suppression in transformerless photovoltaic system application. J Mod Power Syst Clean Energy 2(2):191–194. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Caro S, Testa A, Triolo D, Cacciato M, Consoli A (2005) Low input current ripple converters for fuel cell power units. In: 2005 European conference on power electronics and applicationsGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cacciato M, Consoli A, Aiello N, Gennaro F, Macina G (2008) A digitally controlled double stage soft-switching converter for grid-connected photovoltaic applications. In: 2008 conference proceedings—IEEE applied power electronics conference and exposition—APEC, pp 141–147Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hruška K, Kindl V, Pechanek R (2010) Concept, design and coupled electro-thermal analysis of new hybrid drive vehicle for public transport. In: Proceedings of EPE-PEMC 2010—14th international power electronics and motion control conferenceGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sri Revathi B, Mahalingam P (2018) Modular high-gain DC–DC converter for renewable energy microgrids. Electr Eng 100:1913. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Haghmaram R, Sedaghati F, Ghafarpour R (2017) Power exchange among microgrids using modular-isolated bidirectional DC–DC converter. Electr Eng 99:441. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zabihinejad A, Viarouge P (2018) Global optimization of high-power modular multilevel active-front-end converter using analytical model. Electr Eng 100:509. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Erdogan AD, Aydemir MT (2009) Use of input power information for load sharing in parallel connected boost converters. Electr Eng 91:229. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lipták M, Hrabovcová V, Rafajdus P (2008) Equivalent circuit of switched reluctance generator based on DC series generator. J Electr Eng 59(1):23Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sekerák P, Hrabovcová V, Onufer M, Kalamen L, Rafajdus P (2012) Synchronous motors with different PM materials. In: Proceedings of 9th international conference, ELEKTRO 2012Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dubravka P, Rafajdus P, Makys P, Peniak A, Hrabovcova V, Szabo L, Ruba M (2014) Design of fault tolerant control technique for SRM drive. In: 2014 16th European conference on power electronics and applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechatronics and ElectronicsUniversity of ZilinaŽilinaSlovakia

Personalised recommendations