Electrical Engineering

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 1019–1032 | Cite as

A robust SMES controller strategy for mitigating power and voltage fluctuations of grid-connected hybrid PV–wind generation systems

  • Sayed M. SaidEmail author
  • Hossam S. Salama
  • Bálint Hartmann
  • István Vokony
Original Paper


Recently, hybrid generation systems (HGSs) are considered to be the optimal solution for supplying remote areas with the required electrical power. HGSs contain two or more renewable energy sources (RESs), such as wind power generators (WPGs), photovoltaic (PV) generation systems and the energy of the tides. Due to the intermittent nature of RESs, power and voltage fluctuations have appeared accordingly at the connection point with the utility power grid. Hence, energy storage technologies can play an effective role in mitigating power and voltage fluctuations caused by hybrid PV–wind generation systems. This paper proposes a robust control strategy for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) combined with HGS. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) is used to control the chopper circuit of SMES in order to charge/discharge the active power from/to HGS. The proposed FLC strategy considers the fluctuations due to PV and wind power generation systems and the random load power variation. SMES with the proposed FLC method can effectively mitigate the fluctuation of active and reactive powers transfer between HGS and grid, and it can also regulate the voltage profile of the common connection point of SMES with HGS. Moreover, the system line power loss is clearly reduced by using the SMES system. The complete power system including loads is built in MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results indicate that the proposed FLC–SMES can smooth both power and voltage fluctuations due to uncertain climate changes of PV and WPG systems.


Fuzzy logic control Power and voltage fluctuations Hybrid PV–wind Superconducting magnetic energy storage 

List of symbols


Output power of the PV array (W)


Solar radiation (W/m2)


Measured area of the PV array (m2)


Conversion efficiency of the PV array


Ambient temperature in degrees celsius (°C)


Turbine mechanical output power (W)


Performance coefficient of the wind turbine


Air density (kg/m3)


Blade radius (m)


Wind speed (m/s)


Tip speed ratio of the rotor


Blade pitch angle (rad)


Angular speed of turbine blades (rad/s)


SMES energy (J)


SMES coil inductance (H)


SMES coil current (A)


SMES coil voltage (V)


Chopper circuit duty cycle


DC link voltage (V)


SMES active power (W)


AC filter inductance (µH)


AC filter capacitance (µF)


Turbine electrical output power (W)


Active load power (W)


Reactive load power (Var)


SMES reactive power (Var)


Change of SMES current or SMES state of charge


Change of the difference between total generation power and load active power


Compensated reactive power SCIG rotor circuit (Var)


SMES VSC capacity (VA)

\( S_{\text{sm}}^{\text{Min}} \)

Minimum rating of SMES VSC capacity (VA)

\( S_{\text{sm}}^{\text{Max}} \)

Maximum rating of SMES VSC capacity (VA)


Improvement index in overshoot/undershoot (%)


Maximum overshoot/minimum undershoot without SMES


Maximum overshoot/minimum undershoot with SMES


Battery energy storage system


Common connection point


Crow search algorithm


Diesel engine generator


Energy storage technologies


Fuzzy interface system


Fuzzy logic control


Hybrid generation systems


High-temperature superconductor


Insulated-gate bridge transistor


Low-temperature superconductor


Maximum power point tracking


Power conditioning unit




Phase-locked loop




Renewable energy sources


Squirrel-cage induction generator


Superconducting magnetic energy storage


State of charge


SMES voltage source converter


Three-phase PV voltage inverter


Wind power generators



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringAswan UniversityAswânEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Electric Power EngineeringBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsBudapestHungary

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