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Electrical Engineering

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 1019–1032 | Cite as

A robust SMES controller strategy for mitigating power and voltage fluctuations of grid-connected hybrid PV–wind generation systems

  • Sayed M. SaidEmail author
  • Hossam S. Salama
  • Bálint Hartmann
  • István Vokony
Original Paper
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

Recently, hybrid generation systems (HGSs) are considered to be the optimal solution for supplying remote areas with the required electrical power. HGSs contain two or more renewable energy sources (RESs), such as wind power generators (WPGs), photovoltaic (PV) generation systems and the energy of the tides. Due to the intermittent nature of RESs, power and voltage fluctuations have appeared accordingly at the connection point with the utility power grid. Hence, energy storage technologies can play an effective role in mitigating power and voltage fluctuations caused by hybrid PV–wind generation systems. This paper proposes a robust control strategy for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) combined with HGS. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) is used to control the chopper circuit of SMES in order to charge/discharge the active power from/to HGS. The proposed FLC strategy considers the fluctuations due to PV and wind power generation systems and the random load power variation. SMES with the proposed FLC method can effectively mitigate the fluctuation of active and reactive powers transfer between HGS and grid, and it can also regulate the voltage profile of the common connection point of SMES with HGS. Moreover, the system line power loss is clearly reduced by using the SMES system. The complete power system including loads is built in MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results indicate that the proposed FLC–SMES can smooth both power and voltage fluctuations due to uncertain climate changes of PV and WPG systems.

Keywords

Fuzzy logic control Power and voltage fluctuations Hybrid PV–wind Superconducting magnetic energy storage 

List of symbols

PPV

Output power of the PV array (W)

φ

Solar radiation (W/m2)

A

Measured area of the PV array (m2)

η

Conversion efficiency of the PV array

Ta

Ambient temperature in degrees celsius (°C)

Pm

Turbine mechanical output power (W)

Cp

Performance coefficient of the wind turbine

ρ

Air density (kg/m3)

R

Blade radius (m)

vw

Wind speed (m/s)

λt

Tip speed ratio of the rotor

β

Blade pitch angle (rad)

ωm

Angular speed of turbine blades (rad/s)

Esm

SMES energy (J)

Lsm

SMES coil inductance (H)

Ism

SMES coil current (A)

Vsm

SMES coil voltage (V)

D

Chopper circuit duty cycle

Vdc

DC link voltage (V)

Psm

SMES active power (W)

Lf

AC filter inductance (µH)

Cf

AC filter capacitance (µF)

Pw

Turbine electrical output power (W)

Pl

Active load power (W)

Ql

Reactive load power (Var)

Qsm

SMES reactive power (Var)

Ism

Change of SMES current or SMES state of charge

P

Change of the difference between total generation power and load active power

Qw

Compensated reactive power SCIG rotor circuit (Var)

Ssm

SMES VSC capacity (VA)

\( S_{\text{sm}}^{\text{Min}} \)

Minimum rating of SMES VSC capacity (VA)

\( S_{\text{sm}}^{\text{Max}} \)

Maximum rating of SMES VSC capacity (VA)

IP

Improvement index in overshoot/undershoot (%)

Shold

Maximum overshoot/minimum undershoot without SMES

Shnew

Maximum overshoot/minimum undershoot with SMES

BESS

Battery energy storage system

CCP

Common connection point

CSA

Crow search algorithm

DEG

Diesel engine generator

ESTs

Energy storage technologies

FIS

Fuzzy interface system

FLC

Fuzzy logic control

HGSs

Hybrid generation systems

HTS

High-temperature superconductor

IGBT

Insulated-gate bridge transistor

LTS

Low-temperature superconductor

MPPT

Maximum power point tracking

PCU

Power conditioning unit

PI

Proportional–integral

PLL

Phase-locked loop

PV

Photovoltaic

RESs

Renewable energy sources

SCIG

Squirrel-cage induction generator

SMES

Superconducting magnetic energy storage

SoC

State of charge

VSC

SMES voltage source converter

VSI

Three-phase PV voltage inverter

WPGs

Wind power generators

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringAswan UniversityAswânEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Electric Power EngineeringBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsBudapestHungary

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