Electrical Engineering

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 895–909 | Cite as

An integrated interlinking converter with DC-link voltage balancing capability for bipolar hybrid microgrid

  • Parviz NajafiEmail author
  • Abbas Houshmand Viki
  • Mahdi Shahparasti
Original Paper


The bipolar hybrid microgrid is a newly emerged structure which has gained increasing attention during the last decades. The heart of this structure is the interlinking converter that plays a crucial role in this system and has three main functionalities: (1) bidirectional connection between AC and DC subsystems, (2) sinusoidal current injection with desired power factor to AC side and (3) providing two buses with equal voltages in DC side. This paper applies a recently proposed ten-switch inverter as an interlinking converter in the bipolar hybrid microgrid that can increase efficiency, reliability and power quality on AC and DC sides in such systems. Ten-switch converter has lower cost, volume and size compared to the conventional interlinking converters. A new modulation and control strategy is proposed for ten-switch converter in the bipolar hybrid microgrid which, unlike conventional systems, does not need any extra hardware as a voltage balancer converter to balance DC-link pole voltages. The effectiveness of the proposed modulation and control strategy of ten-switch converter is evaluated and compared with conventional structures in a simulation study. Adaptive power loss calculations and cost analysis are conducted and then compared with three interlinking converters candidates to show the superiority of the proposed interlinking converter.


Bipolar hybrid microgrid AC–DC power converters Dc-link voltage control Power distribution 



  1. 1.
    Shahparasti M, Mohamadian M, Baboli PT, Yazdianp A (2017) Toward power quality management in hybrid AC–DC microgrid using LTC-L utility interactive inverter: load voltage-grid current tradeoff. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 8:857–867Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shamsi P, Fahimi B (2014) Stability assessment of a DC distribution network in a hybrid micro-grid application. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5:2527–2534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Loh PC, Li D, Chai YK, Blaabjerg F (2013) Autonomous control of interlinking converter with energy storage in hybrid AC–DC microgrid. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 49:1374–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mortezapour V, Lesani H (2017) Hybrid AC/DC microgrids: a generalized approach for autonomous droop-based primary control in islanded operations. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 93:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kakigano H, Miura Y, Ise T (2010) Low-voltage bipolar-type dc microgrid for super high quality distribution. IEEE Trans Power Electron 25:3066–3075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaur A, Kaushal J, Basak P (2016) A review on microgrid central controller. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 55:338–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kabalcı E (2018) An islanded hybrid microgrid design with decentralized DC and AC subgrid controllers. Energy 153:185–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ziouani I, Boukhetala D, Darcherif AM et al (2018) Hierarchical control for flexible microgrid based on three-phase voltage source inverters operated in parallel. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 95:188–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pavan Kumar YV, Bhimasingu R (2015) Renewable energy based microgrid system sizing and energy management for green buildings. J Mod Power Syst Clean Energy 3:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhao H, Wu Q, Wang C et al (2015) Fuzzy logic based coordinated control of battery energy storage system and dispatchable distributed generation for microgrid. J Mod Power Syst Clean Energy 3:422–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li Y, Nejabatkhah F (2014) Overview of control, integration and energy management of microgrids. J Mod Power Syst Clean Energy 2:212–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sheshyekani K, Khajesalehi J, Hamzeh M, Dadjo Tavakoli S (2016) Decentralised voltage balancing in bipolar dc microgrids equipped with trans-z-source interlinking converter. IET Renew Power Gener 10:703–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Busquets-Monge S, Bordonau J, Boroyevich D, Somavilla S (2004) The nearest three virtual space vector PWM—a modulation for the comprehensive neutral-point balancing in the three-level NPC inverter. IEEE Power Electron Lett 2:11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rodriguez J, Bernet S, Steimer PK, Lizama IE (2010) A survey on neutral-point-clamped inverters. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 57:2219–2230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mihalache L (2006) A hybrid 2/3 level converter with minimum switch count. In: Conference record—IAS annual meeting (IEEE industry applications society, vol. 2, pp. 611–618Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang F (2002) Sine-triangle versus space-vector modulation for three-level PWM voltage-source inverters. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 38:500–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lu X, Guerrero JM, Sun K et al (2014) Hierarchical control of parallel AC–DC converter interfaces for hybrid microgrids. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5:683–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim JY, Jeon JH, Kim SK et al (2010) Cooperative control strategy of energy storage system and microsources for stabilizing the microgrid during islanded operation. IEEE Trans Power Electron 25:3037–3048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rocabert J, Luna A, Blaabjerg F, Rodríguez P (2012) Control of power converters in AC microgrids. IEEE Trans Power Electron 27:4734–4749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rocabert J, Azevedo GMS, Luna A et al (2011) Intelligent connection agent for three-phase grid-connected microgrids. IEEE Trans Power Electron 26:2993–3005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kolar JWW, Zach FC, Casanellas F et al (1995) Losses in PWM inverters using IGBTs. IEE Proc - Electr Power Appl 142:285–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhou Z, Khanniche MS, Igic P et al (2006) A fast power loss calculation method for long real time thermal simulation of IGBT modules for a three-phase inverter system. Int J Numer Model Electron Netw Devices Fields 19:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringK. N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringPolytechnic University of CataloniaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations