Electrical Engineering

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 743–757 | Cite as

Control and sizing of modular multilevel converter-based STATCOM with hybrid energy storage system for large-scale integration of wind farms with the grid

  • Anil BharadwajEmail author
  • Suman Maiti
  • Nirmalya Dhal
  • S. Chakraborty
Original Paper


A configuration of energy storage system with STATCOM features (E-STATCOM) using modular multilevel converter (MMC) is presented in this paper. It helps to integrate large wind farms into the grid complying grid codes. The E-STATCOM has the capability to provide active and reactive power supports according to the requirements. The proposed topology can handle higher power at improved efficiency compared to the conventional converter-based configurations. The energy storage system (ESS) of E-STATCOM is formed with battery and ultracapacitor to meet the demand of both high-power-density and high-energy-density loads. Also, the combination can improve the transient performance and lifespan of the battery. In this paper, the integration of hybrid energy storage system (H-ESS) with the MMC to form an E-STATCOM and associated control-related issues are discussed. An algorithm to balance the state of charge among the distributed ESS is proposed. A procedure to determine size of the H-ESS is also discussed. The complete system is simulated in PSCAD, and the effectiveness of E-STATCOM is checked for the integration of a large wind farm with the grid.


STATCOM Energy storage system Battery Ultracapacitor Wind farm Modular multilevel converter DC–DC converter 

List of symbols

\(\alpha _i\)

Multiplication factor of an \(i\mathrm{th}\) converter at the DC-link of MMC


Capacitance of ultracapacitor module


Reference inductor current for a DC–DC converter


DC-link current of MMC


Maximum limit of the d-axis current


Minimum limit of the d-axis current


Maximum limit of the q-axis current


Minimum limit of the q-axis current


DC–DC converters connected at the DC-link of MMC


Active power provided by the battery energy storage system


Power rating of each DC–DC converter at the DC-link


Active power output of a submodule in MMC


Active power provided by the ultracapacitor energy storage system


State of charge


Time of SoC algorithm operation


Output voltage of a DC–DC converter at the DC-link


Terminal voltage of each battery module at the submodule of MMC


Maximum voltage of each UC module


Minimum voltage of each UC module


Voltage of each UC module

\(\eta \)

Efficiency of the DC–DC converter used to integrate the ultracapacitor modules


Capacitance of each UC unit


Amount of energy that can be discharged from UC–ESS module


Nominal current of an ultracapacitor unit



The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, India, for financial support under the Grant SERI 2016 with Project Code DST/TMD/SERI/S103.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

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