Electrical Engineering

, Volume 100, Issue 4, pp 2553–2567 | Cite as

An improved sensorless DTC-SVM for three-level inverter-fed permanent magnet synchronous motor drive

  • Selcuk Guven
  • Mehmet Ali Usta
  • Halil Ibrahim Okumus
Original Paper


A speed-sensorless control strategy is investigated in a wide speed range based on extended Kalman filter (EKF) and direct torque control with space vector modulation (DTC-SVM) for three-level cascaded H-bridge inverter-fed permanent magnet synchronous motor drives. The implementation of conventional SVM technique to the multilevel inverters is considerably complicated and leads to high computational burden. A three-level SVM technique simplified on the basis of two-level voltage vector diagram is proposed to reduce this computational complexity, and in addition, to satisfy some requirements for the safe operation of the inverter such as smooth commutation and minimum number of switching. The estimations of rotor position and speed are achieved using an EKF without high-frequency signal injection, especially at very low and zero speeds. The load torque is also estimated simultaneously to account for the mechanical frictions at steady state to improve the estimation performance. Furthermore, the flux trajectory control based on maximum torque per ampere algorithm is implemented to ensure maximal efficiency for constant torque region. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed drive system is tested under different operating conditions and verified by the simulation results.


Sensorless control Extended Kalman filter Load torque estimation Three-level H-bridge inverter Simplified three-level SVM 



First author is supported by TUBITAK with 2214-A Doctorate Research Scholarship Programme. The authors would like to thank TUBITAK.


  1. 1.
    Takahashi I, Noguchi T (1986) A new quick-response and high-efficiency control strategy of an induction motor. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 22(5):820–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhong L, Rahman MF, Hu WY, Lim KW (1997) Analysis of direct torque control in permanent magnet synchronous motor drives. IEEE Trans Power Electron 12(3):528–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lascu C, Boldea I, Blaabjerg F (2000) A modified direct torque control for induction motor sensorless drive. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 36(1):122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lai YS, Chen JH (2001) A new approach to direct torque control of induction motor drives for constant inverter switching frequency and torque ripple reduction. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 16(3):220–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Swierczynski D, Kazmierkowski MP (2002) Direct torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) using space vector modulation (DTC-SVM) simulation and experimental results. In: Proceedings of 28th annual IEEE industrial electronics, pp 751–755Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tang L, Zhong L, Rahman MF, Hu Y (2004) A novel direct torque controlled interior permanent magnet synchronous machine drive with low ripple in flux and torque and fixed switching frequency. IEEE Trans Power Electron 19(2):346–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mohan D, Zhang X, Foo GHB (2017) Generalized DTC strategy for multilevel inverter fed IPMSMs with constant inverter switching frequency and reduced torque ripples. IEEE Trans Energy Conver 32(3):1031–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brando G, Dannier A, Pizzo AD, Rizzo R, Spina I (2015) Generalised look-up table concept for direct torque control in induction drives with multilevel inverters. IET Electr Power Appl 9(8):556–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Khoucha F, Lagoun MS, Kheloui A (2011) A comparison of symmetrical and asymmetrical three-phase H-bridge multilevel inverter for DTC induction motor drives. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 26(1):64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khoucha F, Lagoun SM, Marouani M, Kheloui A, Benbouzid MH (2010) Hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel-inverter induction-motor-drive direct torque control for automotive applications. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 57(3):892–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sapin A, Steimer PK, Simond JJ (2007) Modeling, simulation, and test of a three-level voltage-source inverter with output LC filter and direct torque control. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 43(2):469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mukherjee S, Poddar G (2010) Direct torque control of squirrel cage induction motor for optimum current ripple using three-level inverter. IET Power Electron 3(6):904–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Naik NV, Panda A, Singh SP (2016) A three-level fuzzy-2 DTC of induction motor drive using SVPWM. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 63(3):1467–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang Y, Zhu J, Zhao Z, Xu W, Dorrell DG (2012) An improved direct torque control for three-level inverter-fed induction motor sensorless drive. IEEE Trans Power Electron 27(3):1502–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Patil UV, Suryawanshi HM, Renge MM (2014) Closed-loop hybrid direct torque control for medium voltage induction motor drive for performance improvement. IET Power Electron 7(1):3140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patil UV, Suryawanshi HM, Renge MM (2012) Multicarrier SVPWM controlled diode clamped multilevel inverter based DTC induction motor drive using DSP. In: Proceedings of IEEE power electronics, drives and energy systems, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang Y, Li H, Shi X (2006) Direct torque control with space vector modulation for induction motors fed by cascaded multilevel inverters. In: Proceedings of 32nd annual IEEE industrial electronics, pp 1575–1579Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gholinezhad J, Noroozian R (2012) Application of cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter in DTC-SVM based induction motor drive. In: Proceedings of IEEE power electronics and drive system technology, pp 127–132Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Usta MA, Okumus HI, Kahveci H (2017) A simplified three-level SVM-DTC induction motor drive with speed and stator resistance estimation based on extended Kalman filter. Electr Eng 99(2):707–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hasegawa M, Matsui K (2009) Position sensorless control for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor using adaptive flux observer with inductance identification. IET Electr Power Appl 3(3):209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Foo G, Rahman MF (2010) Sensorless direct torque and flux-controlled IPM synchronous motor drive at very low speed without signal injection. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 57(1):395–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nguyen D, Dutta R, Rahman MF, Fletcher JE (2016) Performance of a sensorless controlled concentrated-wound interior permanent-magnet synchronous machine at low and zero speed. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 63(4):2016–2026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boldea I, Paicu MC, Andreescu GD, Blaabjerg F (2009) Active flux DTFC-SVM sensorless control of IPMSM. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 24(2):314–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paicu MC, Boldea I, Andreescu GD, Blaabjerg F (2009) Very low speed performance of active flux based sensorless control: interior permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control versus direct torque and flux control. IET Electr Power Appl 3(6):551–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Foo GHB, Rahman MF (2010) Direct torque control of an IPM-synchronous motor drive at very low speed using a sliding-mode stator flux observer. IEEE Trans Power Electron 25(4):933–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Foo G, Sayeef S, Rahman MF (2010) Low-speed and standstill operation of a sensorless direct torque and flux controlled IPM synchronous motor drive. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 25(1):25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sayeef S, Foo G, Rahman MF (2010) Rotor position and speed estimation of a variable structure direct-torque-controlled IPM synchronous motor drive at very low speeds including standstill. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 57(11):3715–3723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang G, Zhan H, Zhang G, Gui X, Xu D (2014) Adaptive compensation method of position estimation harmonic error for EMF-based observer in sensorless IPMSM drives. IEEE Trans Power Electron 29(6):3055–3064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang G, Li T, Zhang G, Gui X, Xu D (2014) Position estimation error reduction using recursive-least-square adaptive filter for model-based sensorless interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 61(9):5115–5125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang G, Li Ding, Li Z, Xu J, Zhang G, Zhan H, Ni R, Xu D (2014) Enhanced position observer using second-order generalized integrator for sensorless interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drives. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 29(2):486–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Xu Z, Rahman MF (2012) Comparison of a sliding observer and a Kalman filter for direct-torque-controlled IPM synchronous motor drives. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 59(11):4179–4188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Muzikova V, Glasberger T, Smidl V, Peroutka Z (2014) Comparison of full-model and reduced-model EKF based position and speed estimators for sensorless DTC of permanent magnet synchronous machines. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on applied electronics, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Quang NK, Hieu NT, Ha QP (2014) FPGA-based sensorless PMSM speed control using reduced-order extended Kalman filters. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 61(12):6574–6582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shi Y, Sun K, Huang L, Li Y (2012) Online identification of permanent magnet flux based on extended Kalman filter for IPMSM drive with position sensorless control. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 59(11):4169–4178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Buja GS, Kazmierkowski MP (2004) Direct torque control of PWM inverter-fed AC motors—a survey. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 51(4):744–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Selcuk Guven
    • 1
  • Mehmet Ali Usta
    • 2
  • Halil Ibrahim Okumus
    • 2
  1. 1.Recep Tayyip Erdogan UniversityRizeTurkey
  2. 2.Karadeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey

Personalised recommendations