Effect of acute downhill running on bone markers in responders and non-responders
This study showed that procollagen type 1 amino-terminal pro-peptide and N-MID osteocalcin significantly increased after exercise independent of the form of muscle contraction. Thus, these preliminary results will be useful for future studies that will consider bone turnover characteristics of responders and non-responders to acute and chronic aerobic exercise.
The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of acute flat running (FR) and downhill running (DHR) on bone turnover markers in men.
Fourteen healthy young active men performed three exercise tests in a counterbalanced order, including rest condition, FR, and DHR, at 60% maximal aerobic capacity on a treadmill with 0 and − 12% inclines. Blood samples were taken in the pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and 24-h post-exercise periods, and bone markers included total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal pro-peptide (total PINP) and N-MID osteocalcin.
Total P1NP significantly increased after exercise independent of the form of muscle contraction (p > 0.05). N-MID osteocalcin increased after DHR by 17% compared to after pre-exercise, but the difference did not reach significance (p = 0.07; partial eta square, 0.21). Biomarker responses to exercise were dependent on the exercise form and independent of hormone type in half of the participants who were classified as responders. Physiological parameters and changes in muscle voluntary contraction did not explain the differences between responders and non-responders.
The effect of acute DHR on bone turnover is determined by biomarker type and participant characteristics. Future studies should discriminate between the characteristics of responders and those of non-responders.
KeywordsBone markers Downhill running Eccentric exercise Responders
The authors thank all participants, the Cardiovascular Laboratory, and all research assistants, particularly Mr. Abdullah Al-Qawati and Mr. Thabit Al-Aizari. Blood samples were collected by Mr. Abdul Aziz Alsahali from the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences at College of Applied Medical Sciences at KSU. The statistical analysis was performed by Mr. Malak Nawaz Khan Khattak from the Prince Mutaib bin Abdullah Chair for Biomarkers Research on Osteoporosis. The authors also thank Prof. Mark Willems from the University of Chichester for providing a DHR consultation.
SA, SY, and NA designed the study; SA supervised the data collection process; and SY supervised the blood analysis. SA wrote the first draft of manuscript, SY and NA carefully revised some sections. JR intellectually contributed to the final version of the paper. All authors approved the final draft for publication submission.
This research project was supported by a grant from the Research Centre for the Sports Science and Physical Activity, Deanship of Scientific Research at KSU.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The study was approved by the KSU Institutional Review Board (IRB No. E-16-1831).
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