A multicenter retrospective study of the risk factors associated with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw after tooth extraction in patients receiving oral bisphosphonate therapy: can primary wound closure and a drug holiday really prevent MRONJ?
- 1.4k Downloads
Root amputation, extraction of a single tooth, bone loss or severe tooth mobility, and an unclosed wound were significantly associated with increased risk of developing medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). We recommend a minimally traumatic extraction technique, removal of any bone edges, and mucosal wound closure as standard procedures in patients receiving bisphosphonates.
Osteonecrosis of the jaws can occur following tooth extraction in patients receiving bisphosphonate drugs. Various strategies for minimizing the risk of MRONJ have been advanced, but no studies have comprehensively analyzed the efficacy of factors such as primary wound closure, demographics, and drug holidays in reducing its incidence. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the relationships between these various risk factors after tooth extraction in patients receiving oral bisphosphonate therapy.
Risk factors for MRONJ after tooth extraction were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. All patients were investigated with regard to demographics; type and duration of oral bisphosphonate use; whether they underwent a discontinuation of oral bisphosphonates before tooth extraction (drug holiday), and the duration of such discontinuation; and whether any additional surgical procedures (e.g., incision, removal of bone edges, root amputation) were performed.
We found that root amputation (OR = 6.64), extraction of a single tooth (OR = 3.70), bone loss or severe tooth mobility (OR = 3.60), and an unclosed wound (OR = 2.51) were significantly associated with increased risk of developing MRONJ.
We recommend a minimally traumatic extraction technique, removal of any bone edges, and mucosal wound closure as standard procedures in patients receiving bisphosphonates. We find no evidence supporting the efficacy of a pre-extraction short-term drug holiday from oral bisphosphonates in reducing the risk of MRONJ.
KeywordsAntibiotics administration BRONJ Discontinuation Primary closure Surgical procedure
We received no individual, institutional, or departmental funding from external sources.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by the institutional review board of Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine (authorization number 1900) and by the Institutional Review Boards of the respective hospitals.
Conflicts of interest
- 11.Ruggiero SL, Dodson TB, Fantasia J, Goodday R, Aghaloo T, Mehrotra B, O’Ryan F, American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (2014) American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons position paper on medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw—2014 update. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 72:1938–1956CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Hellstein JW, Adler RA, Edwards B et al (2011) Managing the care of patients receiving antiresorptive therapy for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: executive summary of recommendations from the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. J Am Dent Assoc 142:1243–1251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Yoneda T, Hagino H, Sugimoto T et al (2010) Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: position paper from the allied task force committee of Japanese society for bone and mineral research, Japan Osteoporosis Society, Japanese Society of Periodontology, Japanese Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Japanese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. J Bone Miner Metab 28:365–383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Hasegawa T, Ri S, Umeda M, Komatsubara H, Kobayashi M, Shigeta T, Yoshitomi I, Ikeda H, Shibuya Y, Asahina I, Komori T (2013) The observational study of delayed wound healing after tooth extraction in patients receiving oral bisphosphonate therapy. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 41:558–563CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar