Protein intake and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older
- 573 Downloads
In this study, we followed postmenopausal women and men aged 50 and above for up to 32 years and found no evidence that higher protein intake increased the risk of hip fracture. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender.
We examined the association between intakes of total and specific sources of protein and hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years of age. Our hypothesis was that a higher protein intake would not be associated with a higher risk of hip fractures.
In this analysis, we followed 74,443 women in the Nurses’ Health Study between 1980 and 2012 and 35,439 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study between 1986 and 2012. Health and lifestyle information and hip fractures were self-reported on biennial questionnaires. Protein was assessed approximately every 4 years with a food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks (RR) were computed for hip fracture by quintiles of total, animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders.
During follow-up, we ascertained 2156 incident hip fractures in women and 595 fractures in men. Among men, we observed significant inverse associations for each 10 g increase of total protein (RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85–0.99) and animal protein (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85–0.98) intakes. Total and animal proteins were not significantly associated with hip fractures in women. Both plant (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.99 per 10 g) and dairy protein (RR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.86–0.97) were associated with significantly lower risks of hip fracture when results for men and women were combined. None of these associations were modified by BMI, smoking, physical activity, age, or calcium intake.
We found no evidence that higher protein intake increases risk of hip fracture in these Caucasian men and women. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender.
KeywordsDiet Fractures Hip Nutrition Protein
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health grants: UM1 CA186107, UM1 CA176726, CA87969, HL60712, and AG30521.
Conflicts of interest
- 1.Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People 2020. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/data-search/Search-the-Data?nid=4000. Accessed 31 Dec 2015
- 4.NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy (2001) Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 285:785–795Google Scholar
- 16.Lousuebsakul-Matthews V, Thorpe DL, Knutsen R, Beeson WL, Fraser GE, Knutsen SF (2014) Legumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2. Public Health Nutr 17:2333–2343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Willett WC (2013) Nutritional epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 23.Nurses’ Health Study Questionnaires. http://www.nurseshealthstudy.org/participants/questionnaires Accessed November 25 2016
- 24.Health Professionals Follow-up Study questionnaires. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/hpfs/hpfs_qx.htm Accessed November 25 2016
- 29.Cauley JA, Cawthon PM, Peters KE et al. (2016) Risk factors for hip fracture in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study (MrOS). J Bone Miner Res31:1810–1819Google Scholar
- 34.Bonjour J-P (2016) The dietary protein, IGF-1 skeletal health axis. Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical InvestigationGoogle Scholar
- 37.Zhu K, Meng X, Kerr DA, Devine A, Solah V, Binns CW, Prince RL (2011) The effects of a two-year randomized, controlled trial of whey protein supplementation on bone structure, IGF-1, and urinary calcium excretion in older postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 26:2298–2306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.Larocque SC, Kerstetter JE, Cauley JA, Insogna KL, Ensrud KE, Lui LY, Allore HG (2015) Dietary protein and vitamin D intake and risk of falls: a secondary analysis of postmenopausal women from the study of osteoporotic fractures. Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics 34:305–318CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 42.United States Department of Agriculture (2016) Nutrient intakes from food and beverages: mean amounts consumed per individual, by gender and age. What We Eat in America, NHANES 2013–2014Google Scholar
- 43.Food and Nutrition Board (2002/2005) Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar