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Osteoporosis International

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 1053–1062 | Cite as

The impact of excess body fat on bone remodeling in adolescents

  • L. N. Mosca
  • T. B. L. Goldberg
  • V. N. da Silva
  • C. S. Kurokawa
  • A. C. B. Rizzo
  • C. C. da Silva
  • A. dos Santos Teixeira
  • J. E. Corrente
Original Article

Abstract

Summary

The impact of excess body fat on bone remodeling was evaluated in overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents. In adolescents with excess weight, it was observed that the higher the bone mineral content and bone mineral density values, the lower the levels of the biomarkers. Nutritional imbalances by excess had a negative effect on bone formation in this stage of life.

Introduction

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of excess body fat on bone remodeling in adolescents.

Methods

Body weight, height, and body mass index were determined in 391 adolescents classified as normal weight, overweight, obese, and extremely obese. Bone age was obtained and bone mineral content and bone mineral density were evaluated in the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and total and subtotal body. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of the following bone biomarkers: osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide (S-CTx). The data were analyzed according to nutritional status and age.

Results

In girls with excess weight, the biomarkers were higher in the 10 to 13-year age group and no significant differences were observed between groups according to nutritional status. In boys, the levels were higher in those aged 13 to 15 years. According to nutritional status, significant differences were only observed in mean S-CTx for the age groups of 10–15 years, with higher levels between overweight and obese adolescents aged 10–12 years and between obese and extremely obese adolescents aged 13–15 years. In girls, significant negative correlations were observed between lean mass, fat mass, and fat percentage and each of the three bone markers studied. There was no correlation between lean mass or fat mass and the three biomarkers in boys. The biomarker trends demonstrated across the age groups follow the age trends for growth velocity.

Conclusions

The higher the fat percentage and fat mass in girls, the lower the levels of the biomarkers, indicating that excess body fat has a negative effect on the evolution of these markers during adolescence.

Keywords

Adolescence Bone mineral content Bone mineral density Bone turnover Obesity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for financial support. We are grateful to the young participants for their time and enthusiasm.

Compliance with ethical standards

Grants

07/07731-0, 2011/05991-0, and 2015/04040-2) and Pro-Rector for Research of UNESP.

Conflicts of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. N. Mosca
    • 1
  • T. B. L. Goldberg
    • 1
  • V. N. da Silva
    • 1
  • C. S. Kurokawa
    • 2
  • A. C. B. Rizzo
    • 1
  • C. C. da Silva
    • 3
  • A. dos Santos Teixeira
    • 4
  • J. E. Corrente
    • 5
  1. 1.Postgraduate Program in Gynecology, Obstetrics, and Mastology, Discipline of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Botucatu Medical SchoolSão Paulo State University (UNESP)BotucatuBrazil
  2. 2.Clinical and Experimental Pediatric Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Botucatu Medical SchoolSão Paulo State University (UNESP)BotucatuBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Physical EducationUniversity of North ParanáJacarezinhoBrazil
  4. 4.Tropical Disease and Image Diagnosis, Botucatu Medical SchoolSão Paulo State University (UNESP)BotucatuBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Statistics, Institute of BiosciencesSão Paulo State University (UNESP)BotucatuBrazil

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