Osteoporosis International

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 299–308 | Cite as

Associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density among the Korean population: KNHANES 2008–2011

  • M. K. Kim
  • S. J. Chon
  • E. B. Noe
  • Y. H. Roh
  • B. H. Yun
  • S. Cho
  • Y. S. Choi
  • B. S. Lee
  • S. K. SeoEmail author
Original Article



Excessive amount of calcium intake increased risk for metabolic syndrome in men. However, modest amount decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Modest amount of calcium also increased bone mineral density (BMD) in both men and postmenopausal women.


The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean men and women, especially postmenopausal women.


The study was performed using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011) and included 14,705 participants (5953 men, 4258 premenopausal women, and 4494 postmenopausal women). Clinical and other objective characteristics, presence of metabolic syndrome, and the BMD of the femur neck and lumbar spine were evaluated according to dietary calcium intake.


There was a higher tendency for metabolic syndrome in men with a dietary calcium intake of >1200 mg/day than with ≤400 mg of calcium intake; >400 and ≤800 mg of calcium intake was helpful for postmenopausal women to decrease risk for metabolic syndrome. Overall, the group with calcium intake >400 and ≤800 mg daily had significantly increased BMD in both femoral neck and lumbar spine from both men and postmenopausal women. From both femoral neck and lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women significantly decreased in the group whose calcium intake was >400 and ≤800 mg daily.


Excessive dietary calcium may increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men. For postmenopausal women, calcium intake does not increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, but modest amount decreases the risk. It may increase the BMD in men and postmenopausal women, and also reduce the prevalence of both osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.


BMD Calcium intake Metabolic syndrome Osteoporosis 




Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest


Supplementary material

198_2016_3717_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (39 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 39 kb)


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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. K. Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. J. Chon
    • 3
  • E. B. Noe
    • 4
  • Y. H. Roh
    • 5
  • B. H. Yun
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Cho
    • 6
    • 2
  • Y. S. Choi
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. S. Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. K. Seo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Severance HospitalYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Women’s Life Medical ScienceYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gil HospitalGachon University College of MedicineIncheonRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Seoul Rachel Fertility CenterSeoulRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Biostatistics Collaboration UnitYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gangnam Severance HospitalYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

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