Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium intake, and bone mineral density in Spanish adults
- 652 Downloads
Vitamin D insufficiency is very common among Spanish community-dwelling adult subjects. A threshold of serum 25(OH)D around 30 ng/ml would be necessary for the prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip bone loss in our population, regardless of the dairy calcium ingestion.
This study aims to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D—25(OH)D—status in Spanish adult subjects and to analyze its relationships with serum PTH levels, calcium intake, and bone mineral density (BMD).
A total of 1811 individuals (1154 postmenopausal women and 657 men) aged 44–93 years participated in the study. Serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence. BMD was determined by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip.
Serum 25(OH)D levels were below 10, 20, and 30 ng/ml in 5, 40, and 83 % of participants, respectively. There was a significant seasonal difference in mean serum 25(OH)D, with higher levels in summer–autumn. In multivariate analysis, 25(OH)D levels were negatively correlated with age, serum PTH and creatinine, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and a number of chronic diseases, but positively with dairy calcium intake. The magnitude of the difference in serum PTH according to 25(OH)D quartiles was not influenced by calcium intake. A threshold of serum 25(OH)D around 30 ng/ml was observed for serum PTH and hip BMD.
Vitamin D insufficiency is very common among Spanish community-dwelling adult subjects. A threshold of serum 25(OH)D around 30 ng/ml would be necessary for the prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip bone loss in our population, regardless of the dairy calcium ingestion. Programs to improve vitamin D status may be required in our country.
KeywordsBone mineral density Dairy calcium intake 25(OH)D Parathyroid hormone
This work was supported by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III—Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias (FIS, PI11/01092), Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Envejecimiento y Fragilidad (RETICEF) (RD06/0013/1007), “Instituto de Salud Carlos III”, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Spain, and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER).
Conflicts of interest
- 7.Lips P (2001) Vitamin D, deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev 22:447–501Google Scholar
- 20.Ruston D, Hoare J, Henderson L, Bates CJ, Prentice A, Birch M (2004) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: adults aged 19–64 years. In Volume 4: nutritional status (anthropometry and blood analytes), blood pressure and physical activity. TSO. LondonGoogle Scholar
- 31.Quesada-Gómez JM, Diaz-Curiel M, Sosa-Henriquez M, Malouf-Sierra J, Nogues-Solan X, Gomez-Alonso C, Rodriguez-Mañas L, Neyro-Bilbao JL, Cortes X, Delgadillo J (2013) Low calcium intake and inadequate vitamin D status in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 136:175–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2011) Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar